Sunday, July 31, 2016

China's Growth and Decline

China followed the growth plan earlier followed by Japan and South Korea. Similarly it is now into decline phase.

It grew at a rate of 8.7% during 1980 to 2015.

Saturday, July 30, 2016

7,000 Muslim students are studying in 1,200 Saraswati Shishu Mandirs and Saraswati Vidya Mandirs -News 2016

India has to achieve unity among all religions existing in India. Social organizations have to take steps for facilitating it.

It is a good news that was reported in the Times of India. 7,000 Muslim students are studying in 1,200 Saraswati Shishu Mandirs and Saraswati Vidya Mandirs. All Indians have to appreciate the families that are sending their children to these schools and also administrators of these schools who are admitting them and managing all to have a peaceful coexistence respecting each other and their ways of life.

Countercyclical Investment in PSUs in Manufacturing and Services - Option for Indian Government

A recent report on investment in India by HSBC pointed out that there is 21% increase in Government investment and -1.4% decrease in pvt. sector investment in India.  Private sector is shying away from investing. Even through government has increased investment, it has not started any public sector units. Government is totally against public sector investment in manufacturing and service sector businesses. But such a stance need not be taken  by the government. No doubt Indian society and polity moved away from the earlier economic policy that wanted public sector to have the commanding heights of the economy in India. Now such a stance is not needed. But Government can take up investment in Public sector units as countercyclic measure. When private sector is not investing and governments project planners have profitable projects, government can come forward and invest in PSUs. When economy is in boom and private sector is investing with enthusiasm government need not provide additional funds out of its budget to public sector for further investment. Only PSU units, who have surplus funds and good investment projects can be allowed to invest. Or they may be asked to pay dividends to government during good times. Government thus gets into investment in PSUs only as countercyclic investment policy.

Now, Government should investment Rs. 25,000 crores in new public sector units and start one PSU with Rs. 1000 crore equity in each state. This may employment to people at the rate of 4000 persons in every public sector unit in every state. This will create new townships having 6000 people on average and this may give rise employment to many more people to serve this size of population. This will kickstart economy in 25 places and many small scale units will come up. Government will earn goodwill from the people.

Government should not shy away from PSUs. Government involvement in economic activities is an age old practice in India. Chanakya wrote elaborately on King's economic activities in Artha Shastra.

Government will be able to know the likely malpractices that businessmen can resort to and also know the difficulties of businessmen by having its own PSUs. While we have moved away the old thinking of commanding heights of the economy being in the hands of PSUs, we still have to develop the competency to run our PSUs with adequate effectiveness and efficiency.

Rational public sector investment is needed.

If public sectors units cannot be planned and managed by Government to the extent they are required for a meaningful involvement in economic activity of the country, it is a failure of political and administrative wings of the Government.

Can Public Sectors Units be Closed?

Yes. When economic organizations are started there is a big risk of failure. If the failure materializes, the government is free to close the unit. Failure of business organizations is part of competitive business economy and government units also fail. Failure should not held against government. The specific errors committed can be identified and rectified in the future.

Failure of certain units should not mean Government has to run away from PSU investment. Every body needs to know that Tatas and Birlas have many failed businesses in the groups and many of them are closed. The arguments for reducing the size of PSU investment has won the day and served its useful purpose. Now the argument has to be in favour of Government reigniting growth  by finding investment opportunities and in manufacturing sector and investing in it to a minimum threshold level in depressed economy conditions.

Rational public sector investment is needed.

Closure of failed PSUs ok. But start new PSUs.

Start one PSU in every state each year with investment of Rs. 1000 cr in each.

Wednesday, July 27, 2016

India - 2016 - Painting Competition for Children on Energy Conservation

First Level at State Level

Second Level - National Level

For the Maharashtra State advertisement appeared in Time of India dated 27 July 2016 in Page 14.

Last year advertisements for the final function

India - National Energy Conservation Awards 2016

Bureau of Energy Efficiency India invites applications for award of National Energy Conservation Awards from various subsectors of the economy. The award is based on energy conservation effort during 2014 - 16


Aviation Sector
Thermal Power Stations
Electricity Distribution Companies
Office & BPO Buildings
Universities and Engineering Institution Buildings
Hotels & Hospitals Building
Shopping Mall
Railway Stations
Railway Workshops
Zonal Railways
State Road Transport Corporation & Undertakings
Ordnance Factory
SDA (State Designated Agencies)
State PWD and CPWD
Manufacturers of BEE Star Labeled Equipments/ Appliances
Best Energy Auditor and Energy Auditing Agencies

The last date for submitting filled application form is:

28 September 2016

To download application forms/formats

Sunday, July 24, 2016

Modern Indian Family - Evolution

Thesis Chapter
Indian Family System

Indian Society and Social Change
Calicut University BA Sociology Distance Education Notes

Indian Society and Ways of Living
Organization of Social Life in India

Modern Indian Family Law
Werner Menski
Routledge, 16-Dec-2013 - Political Science - 448 pages

This text presents an overview of the major issues and topics in current developments in Indian family law. Indian law has produced a number of very important innovations in the past two decades, which are also highly instructive for law reform debates in western and other jurisdictions. Topics discussed are: marriage, divorce, polygamy, maintenance, property and the Uniform Civil Code.

International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling
December 2004, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 341-350
First online:
The Impact of Modernization on Indian Families: The Counselling Challenge
Lina Kashyap
Department of Family and Child Welfare, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India

Changing Authority Within the Context of Socialization in Indian Families
George Kurian and Ratna Ghosh
Social Science
Vol. 53, No. 1 (WINTER 1978), pp. 24-32

Friday, July 22, 2016

State Bank of India - Business Correspondent and Business Facilitator - Business Opportunity

State Bank of India is appointing and using the services of business correspondents and business facilitators to increase the coverage of the Bank in rural areas as well as in urban areas. Other banks are also using the services of similar channel. This provides a startup opportunity to persons interested in proving financial services to people.

SBI has 66,000 customer services providers. It is in the process of revamping this channel by studying and improving the performance of these outlets.  SBI also has corporate banking correspondents.

Pay Point India is one such corporate service provider and it is planning appoint 3000 to 3500 CSPs.

Know more SBI Banking correspondents

BC arrangement - SBI Brief

Oxigen Financial Services - Advertisement for SBI CSPs

Report on Study of  business correspondents and business facilitators - 2011 Report

Thursday, July 21, 2016

India - Rio Olympics 2016 - Men's and Women's Relay Teams

The Indian men's and women's 4x400m relay squads have qualified for the Rio Olympics



Sania Mirza - 2016 Rio Olympics - Tennis Participant



The Times of India  Sports Playlist

Sania is participating in Rio Olympics. She will partner Prarthana Thombare in the Tennis women's doubles event and Rohan Bopanna in the mixed doubles.

Rohit Khandelwal from India crowned Mr World 2016

Rohit Khandelwal won Mr World title at the finale of the 2016 competition in the UK.

26-year-old Khandelwal received a cash prize of $50,000. The event was held  at the Southport Theatre and Convention Centre in Southport, UK.




The Times of India

Wednesday, July 20, 2016

India's Economic Reforms (1991 - 2016) Review and Plan for 2016-2041 - $20 Trillion GDP

Indian Economic Reforms - Review of the period 1991 - 2016

All newspapers and periodicals are publishing articles reviewing the reform process initiated in 1991 and sustained till 2016 in a party neutral manner. Whichever government came into power so far, it carried the reforms further and strengthened the liberalized economic system where private business is allowed to show its entrepreneurial ability without the shackles of government planning commission and licenses based on it. Public sector was allowed to expand wherever possible without insisting on domination of public sector in every organized sector of economic activity.

Below is the collection of articles that are being published in Indian and Foreign press about the economic reforms undertaken during the period 1991 - 2016 in India

The first important document that every reader interested in knowing about economic reforms that Indian government initiated has to read is the budget speech delivered by Dr. Manmohan Singh, Finance Minister on 24 July 1991.

20 years of economic reforms
Aug 09 2010.

Twenty years after India’s historic economic reforms, it’s time for another big effort
Jul 21st 2011

25 Years Reviews - Published in 2016

25 years of reforms: Liberalisation is significant, but we still have an exit problem, says Finance Minister, Arun Jaitley

25 years of reforms: How a PM with zero knowledge of economics scripted India's biggest turnaround story

Economic reforms: P Chidambaram on India’s tryst with destiny
By: P Chidambaram | Published: July 10, 2016
Financial Express

The only way in which we can accelerate and sustain the pace of development is to ensure that every able-bodied adult can work and contribute to economic development. - P Chidambaram

If the Indian economy grows at 6% or 7% or 8%, it will continue to attract FDI. Money will flow into India. Infrastructure will be built. Factories will come up. Doing business will become easier in course of time. - P Chidambaram

A poorly educated and unhealthy workforce will be a severe drag on the economy. - P Chidambaram

Quarter of a mile
The economic reforms initiated in 1991 changed India as we knew it. Twenty-five years later, the transformation is anything but complete, and there is a long way to go

How reforms killed Indian manufacturing
(Ashok Parthasarathi was the Science and Technology Adviser to the late Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.)
March 15, 2016

The ease of living in India
A quarter century of economic reform has transformed the economy. But governments have been less mindful of addressing social and natural capital
Pulapre Balakrishnan teaches economics at Ashoka University.
June 18, 2016

Search Links for Articles on Economic Reforms in India - Newspaper  and Periodical Specific

The Economic Times

Indian Express

India Economic Plan for the Future -  2016 to 2041

2016 Opinions

Montek Singh Ahluwalia - We need to focus on our cities and the challenges of urbanisation. That’s much more important.

At this juncture, the government should concentrate its attention on three quiet crises in the economy — in agriculture, industry, and infrastructure — which run deep and loom large as binding constraints on our economic performance.

Deepak Nayyar  (Chief Economic Adviser to three governments — two short-lived ones led by V P Singh and Chandra Shekhar and later, for the first few months of the Narasimha Rao-led government)
- At this juncture, the government should concentrate its attention on three quiet crises in the economy — in agriculture, industry, and infrastructure — which run deep and loom large as binding constraints on our economic performance.

Monday, July 18, 2016

RIO 2016 Olympics - Schedule - Brazil Time

Olympic Posters Unveiled

The Times of India

Download From

Detailed Schedule Under Preparation

5-21 August 2016

Daily competition schedule
                                           5    6     7     8    9    10    11     12    13    14   15    16  17  18  19  20 21
Sport     Venue
Archery Sambódromo       •     •      •     •     •      •      •
Athletics Olympic Stadium                      •   •    •    •    •   •    •   •    •
Athletics - Marathon                                          •                                   •
Athletics - Race Walk                               •                                 •

Under Preparation

Badminton Riocentro - Pavilion  • • • • • • • • • •
Basketball Youth Arena  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Beach Volleyball  • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Boxing Riocentro  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Canoe Slalom Whitewater  • • • • •
Canoe Sprint Lagoa Stadium  • • • • • •
Cycling - BMX Olympic  • • •
Cycling - Mountain Bike  • •
Cycling - Road Race Fort  • •
Cycling - Road Time Trial •
Cycling - Track Rio Olympic• • • • • •
Diving Maria Lenk Aquatics • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Equestrian - Dressage  • • • •
Equestrian - Eventing  • • • •
Equestrian - Jumping  • • • •
Fencing Carioca Arena 3  • • • • • • • • •

Mineirão Belo Horizonte
Mané Garrincha Stadium Brasília
Amazônia Arena Manaus
Maracanã Rio de Janeiro
Olympic Stadium Rio de Janeiro
Fonte Nova Arena Salvador
São Paulo Arena São Paulo

Golf Olympic Golf Course • • • • • • • •
Gymnastics - Artistic  • • • • • • • • •
Gymnastics - Rhythmic  • • •
Gymnastics - Trampoline  • •
Handball Future Arena  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Hockey Olympic Hockey  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Judo Carioca Arena  • • • • • • •
Marathon Swimming Fort  • •
Modern Pentathlon Youth Arena Deodoro • • •
Rowing Lagoa Stadium Copacabana • • • • • • • •
Rugby Deodoro Stadium Deodoro • • • • • •
Sailing Marina da Glória Copacabana • • • • • • • • • • •
Shooting Olympic Shooting Centre Deodoro • • • • • • • • •
Swimming Olympic Aquatics Stadium Barra • • • • • • • •
Synchronised Swimming Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre Barra • • • • •
Table Tennis Riocentro - Pavilion 3 Barra • • • • • • • • • • • •
Taekwondo Carioca Arena 3 Barra • • • •
Tennis Olympic Tennis Centre Barra • • • • • • • • •
Triathlon Fort Copacabana Copacabana • •
Volleyball Maracanãzinho Maracanã • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Water Polo Julio de Lamare Aquatics Centre /
Olympic Aquatics Stadium Maracanã / Barra • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Weightlifting Rio Centro - Pavilion 2 Barra • • • • • • • • • •
Wrestling - Freestyle  • • • • • Wrestling - Greco-Roman Carioca Arena 2 Barra • • •
Opening Ceremony  •
Closing Ceremony  •

Updated  21 July 2016,  22 June 2016

Indian Participants - Sportsmen and Women in Rio Olympics 2016



Indian Sportsmen and Women (Athletes) Selected for Olympics Rio 2016

Archery -  Indian Olympic Participants Rio 2016

Atanu Das
Bombayla Devi
Deepika Kumari
Laxmirani Majhi

Athletics - Track and Field Men  -  Indian Olympic Participants Rio 2016

Muhammad Anas 400 m

Ankita Sharma        Long Jump



Kheta Ram         Marathon
Nitender Singh Rawat Marathon
Thonakai Gopi Marathon

Baljinder Singh 20 km walk
Gurmeet Singh        20 km walk
Irfan Kolothum Thodi 20 km walk

Sandeep Kumar 50 km walk
Manish Singh Rawat 50 km walk

Inderjeet Singh Shot put

Vikas Gowda         Discus throw

Athletics - Track and Field Men - Indian Olympic Participants Rio 2016

Dutee Chand 100 m
Srabani Nanda 200 m
Tintu Luka 800 m
Lalita Babar 3000 m steeplechase
Sudha Singh 3000 m steeplechase and Marathon
O. P. Jaisha Marathon
Kavita Raut Marathon

Khushbir Kaur 20 km walk
Sapna Punia     20 km walk
Manpreet Kaur Shot put
Seema Antil Discus throw


Leander Paes
Rohan Bopanna

Sania Mirza
Prarthana Thombre

Updated  21 July 2016,  27 June 2016

Narendra Modi's Dream - India: 20 Trillion Dollar Economy - Possible by 2035?

January 2015
Narendra Modi stated his dream and asked his countrymen "Can't we dream and achieve?"

$20 Trillion Indian Economy is the Dream.

I immediately analyzed the idea. I found enough support already from various authorities on economic development and came to the conclusion that it is a feasible dream. It is a vision. This blog post is created immediately to provide support to the vision by informing many Indians the opportunity to participate enthusiastically and share the prosperity by first creating it.


Indian Economy Plans, Programmes and Results

1 June 2016
Key Takeouts From India’s GDP Numbers

27 September 2015

PM Narendra Modi told the audience of  Facebook Townhall meeting that his aim is making India's economy touch $20 trillion in ppp terms.  (PWC 2050 world forecast says that by 2030 India will reach 17.13 trillion dollars.)

11 May 2015

 $10 trillion economy by 2034

We need to boost R&D spending to 2.4% of GDP to achieve GDP growth of 9% p.a. for number of years and  become $10 trillion economy by 2034

India's economy would need to increase its research and development (R&D) spending from mere 0.8 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2013 to 2.4 per cent  similar to developed markets of Korea (3.8 per cent), US (2.7 per cent) and China (1.9 per cent)  to grow its GDP by 9 per cent per annum to become a $10 trillion economy over the next two decades. Minister of state for science & technology and earth sciences, Mr Y.S. Chowdary  stressed the point while inaugurating '3rd Innovation Summit-cum-Excellence Awards: Innovative India@2020,' organised by The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) on 11th May 2015.

Read the PWC Report for the Event

Focus on innovation should not  be restricted to new technologies and products but also include innovative distribution and financing processes and business models according to the minister.

23 March 2015

Former IMF Deputy Managing Director John Lipsky  -  Exim Bank Commencement Day Celebration Lecture

"Viewed from a global perspective, India appears poised to enter a period of powerful progress that could carry widespread and profound benefits,"

This exciting period of "accelerated progress" could encompass many important social, economic and financial aspects. Investor expectations are favourable both because of promises of reforms and because of problems evident in other emerging markets.

"But this highly encouraging outcome can't be taken for granted. It will be realised only if opportunities are seized, including through a combination of reforms and new investment."

The biggest challenge is to improve productivity on a sustained basis. 

"The key challenge will be to boost productivity significantly, and on a sustained basis,"

See the Webcast of the lecture and listen to Dr. Lipsky favourable words on India's potential

1 March 2015

The Economic Times Newspaper carried this item on the front page in its coverage of Central Budget for India presented on 28 February by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.

"PM Modi dreams of a $20-trillion economy. As the Budget revs up India and makes it competitive globally, the world is agog."

Important Sectors - Contribution in $20 trillion India GDP

Estimated by Narayana Rao  (based on a comparison with current GDP of USA)
Readers are requested to give their opinions through comments.

Government - Central, State and Local Government - 15% - $ 3 trillion

Agriculture and Mining  -   $1 trillion (difficult. USA only $500 billion)

Construction  -    $ 1 trillion

Manufacturing   25%  -  $ 5 trillion
Automobiles - $1 trillion
Air Planes
Defence Equipment
Electrical equipment
Electronic devices
Petroleum - Extraction and Refining
Power Production
Railway Equipment
Metal refining
Textiles   ($650 billion production planned for 2025)

Services 50% - $ 10 trillion

IT  - $1 trillion
Real Estate - Offices, Hotels, Resorts and Residential Houses - Renting and Leasing - $1.75 trillion
Banking, Mutual Funds and Insurance - $1.5 trillion
Health and Social Care -  $1.5 trillion
Wholesale and Retail Trade - $2.25 trillion
Media -  $0.75 trillion
Entertainment - $0.75 trillion
Education - $0.25 trillion
Transport - $0.25

(Tourism is 7.5% of economy presently.)


The Dream of $20 Trillion GDP - Dream Declared by PM Modi

$20 Trillion GDP for India - The Dream - PM Narendra Modi

17 January  2015 - The Dream Was Read by Me and My Support Started

Prime Narendra Modi addressing ET Global Business Meet on 16 January 2015


During his address on 16 January 2015 in ET Global Business Meet, Prime Minister Narendra Modi stated his dream and asked his countrymen "Can't we dream and achieve?"

$20 Trillion GDP Indian Economy is the Dream.

$20 Trillion GDP India - Dream Feasible - Feasibility Analysis

What is required to achieve it?

Presently India is $2 Trillion economy. At 10% per annum growth rate, it will take 25 years to achieve that target in real terms. May be if we take it in nominal terms it may take 20 years as there will be inflation in USA also.

Is 10% growth rate for 25 years possible?

Yes, it is possible if savings rate is 40% and Incremental Capital Output Ratio (ICOR) is 4 on average. It means capital projects must be planned with efficiency. All projects must be subjected to efficiency audits. Industrial Engineering is one discipline with focus on efficiency. In India, the National Institute given responsibility for Industrial Engineering is NITIE situated at Mumbai. The institute must rise to the occasion. I am a professor in NITIE and do my bit to increase the knowledge of the discipline in all engineers and managers by maintaining a blog titled Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center.  In recent years, I am also taking interest in explaining the discipline through company based training programmes.

So two questions are important.

What is ICOR in India and how does it compare with China?

What is savings rate in India and how does it compare with China?


ICOR was average 4 in China during the period 1995 to 2008. Then it went above 4 for three years.

In India ICOR was 5 during 1991 to 2000, 4.4 during 2001 to 2010, but it was 3,7 during 2004 to 2008.

We can see that India has achieved ICOR of less than 4 during some years. This gives us the confidence that motivated government administration - Cabinets, Parliament, Assemblies and Panchayats and government employees, public sector management and employees, and private sector management and employees can achieve ICOR of 4 or less. The vision is compelling for all and the emphasis on inclusion announced by Modi should motivate all. The focus is not on fattening the wealth of rich but that of financial unity and inclusion.

Savings and Investment

India’s savings and investment peaked at 36.8% and 38.1% of GDP, respectively, in FY08. In FY13, the overall savings rate dropped to 30.1% of GDP and investment to 34.8% of GDP.

In China, the savings rate has gone up to 50% also. It seems possible that in India also Investment can be taken up to 40% GDP.

In both the important dimensions, India can reach the target and achieve 10 growth rate for a long period of time and achieve Modi's Dream.

I have circulated this article in social media and got some comments. I replied to some of them and elaborated my analysis.

24 January 2016

Today I cam across a lecture by S. Gurmurty. In December 2014 itself, he talked of $800 billion investment.

Narendra Modi's Dream - India: 20 Trillion Dollar Economy - Possible by 2035 through Involvement of All Indians

10% growth rate makes it possible. Innovation and efficiency are required. Government, Public Sector and Private Sector - all have to innovate and all have to improve efficiency.

10% growth was announced by the earlier government also. So it is possible. If the present government is more committed, more determined, and more driven by ideology to make India great and prosperous, 10% growth will be achieved and Modi's dream which will be the dream of all of us will come true. Rs.1,00,000 per month will be the per capital income in the country. Understand the potential and work for it. Believe in yourself first and achieve targets at your level first has to be the aim of many independent producers of goods and services. Remember Gandhi - Be the Change.

Modi's Dream for India - Let us make it Our Dream

Prime Minister Modi has an India Dream 
India is a World Top Team
India has Param Vaibhavam
Indians have great name and fame

Modi wrote a Gandhi Rhyme
There should be calm
Development is what Everybody should proclaim
Swachhata is the aim and health for all is main

20 trillion dollars in Maa Bharati's hands
Enough to fulfill every toiler's desires
Enough to nourish all Bharat residents
Every Indian has to come out and flex his muscles

The dream will be reality
Provided our polity
Nobility and levity
Work with unity

It is  Vivekananda's Dream
It is Gadhiji's Dream
Once again provided to us as Modi's Dream
Let us make it Our Dream

Mother, I am here
To fulfill your desire
I promise to deliver
Period of great grandeur 

Narayana Rao - 18.1.2015 at Thane 4.50 am

Comparison With US GDP

USA's GDP for 2013 17.078.3 trillion dollars.

The Mechanism for Achieving $20 Trillion by 2035 - Increasing GDP 10 times for India

Passenger car industry can be the key industry. Plan to increase the car production 10 times from the present 30,00,000 to 30,000,000  ( from 30 lakhs to 3 crores or 3 million to 30 million)

Voices Supporting Modi's Dream

Estimate of $14 trillion GDP in a Book
See the Page of a Google Book
The End of American World Order

5 February 2015
Chetan Ahya in the Economic Times dated 5.2.2015 Page 18
Taken together, these important changes in the macro environment, when fully implemented, should have a lasting impact on boosting economic development in India, and will go some way in achieving the ambition of creating a $10-trillion economy by 2030.

1 Feb 2015
Indian Stock Market value will touch $10 trillion dollars - BSE Chief Ashish Chauhan

22 Jan 2015
China has gone ahead. But India can catch up.  Indian Express

24 November 2014
PWC Report on India - Future of India - Winning Leap
Scenario 3: The Winning Leap includes investment in both human and physical capital as per the previous two scenarios but also focuses on investment in R&D and innovation and envisions a 9.0% CAGR for GDP by 2034. This scenario forecasts the most aggressive growth and is the only scenario which will generate the 240 million new jobs India's growing demography needs. This is supported by a massive transformation in the investment outlook and productivity metrics in India, supported through significant investments (domestic and foreign) and research and development.

Development of R&D Important for $10 Trillion GDP

Business world

Video - NDTV

February 2014
Finance Minister Chidambaram announced that India will be the third largest economy in the world by 2043. Can it be achieved by Modiji much before?
Policies to make India the third largest economy - Shri Chidambaram

A book written in 2009

India 2039: An Affluent Society in One Generation 

(Google eBook)

$20 trillion GDP for India mentioned in the book.

Harinder S Kohli, Anil Sood
SAGE Publications India, Jan 20, 2010 - 300 pages

This book paints a bold and inspiring scenario of India becoming an affluent society by 2039, that is, within a generation from now. It makes a persuasive case as to why such a scenario could be plausible. Even more importantly, the book very appropriately and frankly assess the many hurdles – political, social, policy and institutional – that the country must overcome to realize this vision and lift millions of Indians from relative poverty today to enjoy the fruits of a modern and inclusive affluent society within 30 years or so. Its agenda of inter-generational issues is central to India avoiding the middle income trap that so many other countries have fallen into. However, India can successfully tackle this trap only by addressing, and addressing urgently and head on, the various facets of governance highlighted in the book.

Features unique to this study
- unlike other vertical studies that treat a topic in depth but on its own, this book tries to connect the dots between the key issues that could decide the future of Indian society
- it has a longer 30-year perspective, with a corresponding emphasis on challenges that require long gestation to address
- it offers a projection not of what will be but of what India’s potential is.


India - Vision $20 Trillion GDP - The Journey

Tifac is creating Technology Vision 2035 for India

Updates to the Blog Post - $20 Trillion GDP for India

Updated:  21 July 2016, 24 Jan 2016,  1 Nov 2015,  24 March 2015, 16 March 2015, 1 March 2015
Updated   27 Feb 2015, 18 Jan 2015

Started on  17 January  2015

Narendra Modi - Biography with Embedded Videos

10 May 2014 - Latest Biography sketch of Narendra Modi on a TV Channel - Newsxlive



Date of Birth  17 September 1950

Narendra Modi - Brief Biography

Narendra Damodardas Modi was born on September 17, 1950, at Vadnagar, Northern Mehsana District Gujarat. Narendra Modi completed his schooling in Vadnagar.

Modi started as a Tea-Seller on Ahmedabad Bus Station.

He joined Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS) and by working sincerely to achieve the objectives of the organization as a full time member, termed as pracharak, he became a secretary in Bharatiya Janata Party. From there, he joined the Government of Gujarat as Chief Minister.  He won three elections in Gujarat as Chief Minister and today, he is the Prime Minister Candidate of BJP in the forthcoming elections for Lok Sabha. Despite his poor economic background and social status as a member of other backward caste, he achieved something many Indians at his social level could not. In the process he also brought respect to his organization RSS. RSS was accused of upper caste bias. The elevation of Modi due to his personal achievement first demolishes that accusation. Modi was supported by RSS in his efforts. Due to Modi's success, many more RSS pracharaks can now come into more active social and political life and can dream of something big.

Narendra Modi is now the PM Candidate for Bharatiya Janata Party for the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections

A Bollywood biopic may come on Modi - 22 August 2013

Narendra Modi - Life and Times - Details

Modi's father ran a teashop at the Vadnagar railway station and Modi used to help his father in the mornings at the railway station, and when the bell rang at the school, he used to cross the railway track to reach the class. Modi started selling tea in helping his father when he was six years old.  Thel tea was sold to passengers whenever an odd train came into the small Vadnagar station.

On Diwali day in 1958, Narendra Modi presented himself as a bal swayamsevak (child member of RSS) to Vakil Saheb, a state level functionary in RSS in Vadnagar Shakha.

Modi attended Bhagavatacharya Narayanacharya High School, a co-ed Gujarati-medium institution situated at the entrance to the old city of Vadnagar.

At age of 18, Modi decided to set off and wander in the Himalayas. The only source of information for Modi’s travels during this time is Modi himself:  His family had no idea of his whereabouts.After two years, he returned and moved to  Ahmedabad and work at his uncle Babubhai’s canteen at the city bus stand.

Thus, Modi started his career as a Tea-Seller on Ahmedabad Bus Station. He began work in the staff canteen of Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC). subsequent to this, he set up his own teacart on a cycle near Geeta Mandir. Some pracharaks used to have tea at his cart after they returned from their morning shakha

Soon he wound up his teacart and moved to the RSS State Headquarters Hedgewar Bhawan as an assistant.  His daily routine, according to Modi himself was  making tea and breakfast for the pracharaks in the morning, cleaning up the entire building, consisting of eight or nine rooms and washing the clothes of  Vakil Saheb (State Prachark).

He stayed there till he became a full–time pracharak of the RSS. Modi became a pracharak in the RSS in 1971.

As a prachark, he was given charge of Sangh's student wing, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), in Gujarat.  Modi was appointed as the RSS pracharak in-charge for Gujarat of the Sangh’s student front, the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), a position he held through the Emergency. Modi organised agitations and covert distribution of Sangh's pamphlets during the Emergency.

During emergency, Modi graduated in political science from Delhi University  After emergency, he completed M.A. in political science as an external student from Gujarat University.

Modi worked as a ''pracharak'' in the Kangra region of Himachal Pradesh where people remember him as a docile and humble man.

Narendra Modi's abilities and leadership qualities were seen in the early days of his student life when he became the student leader of Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parishad.  He played a prominent role in the anticorruption movement in 1974 in Gujarat.

During the anti emergency movement, Modi successfully stayed underground and organized number of activities. His abilities were recognized by many during this period.

In 1978, one year after the end of the Emergency, Modi was appointed as the RSS pracharak in-charge for six districts in central Gujarat. Three years later, at the young age of 31, he was promoted  to become the liaison between the Sangh and all its frontal organisations across the whole of Gujarat.

Modi worked as a ''pracharak'' in the Kangra region of Himachal Pradesh where people remember him as a docile and humble man.

in 1987, when he was appointed as the organisation secretary for Gujarat. Thus, he entered politics in 1987 by joining the Bharatiya Janata Party.  He was responsible for the success of BJP in Ahmedabad Municipal Elections.

Within a year, he was elevated to the level of General Secretary of the Gujarat unit of the party. BJP organised a series of roadshows, beginning with two statewide campaigns in which Modi played a key behind-the-scenes role: the Nyay Yatra in 1987 and the Lok Shakti Rath Yatra in 1989. In 1990, when the BJP president LK Advani began his Ayodhya Rath Yatra from the Somnath Temple in Gujarat, Modi facilitated the first stretch of the campaign.  Modi received his first national assignment, as the organiser of the Ekta (Unity) Yatra undertaken by the BJP’s President Murli Manohar Joshi from  the southern tip of Tamil Nadu to Srinagar.

In 1995 he was made the National Secretary of the party in-charge of five major states in India – a rare distinction. He traveled extensively through out the world, which helped him to develop a global perspective.

During his tenure in New Delhi as the BJP''s national spokesman in the late 1990s, he went to the US for a three-month course on public relations and image management. He is a good learner and his course on public relations now helps him to get the publicity he desires.

In 1998, a few days after Atal Bihari Vajpayee took office as prime minister, Modi was promoted to the post of the national party’s organisation secretary: the bridge between the BJP and the RSS for all of India.

In 2001, BJP  entrusted him with the responsibility of taking over as the CM of Gujarat.  On 7 October 2001, Modi was appointed the Chief Minister of Gujarat.  "For the RSS, Modi’s installation was a significant accomplishment: for the first time in its history, a fulltime pracharak had become a chief minister," wrote a magazine. He won elections in Gujarat as chief minister in 2002, 2007 and 2012 and He is the Chief Minister of Gujarat now.

On 13 September, 2013, the Parliamentary Board of BJP declared him to be the PM Candidate for the forthcoming Lok Sabha Elections

Under Modi, there was high growty in agriculture in Gujarat. In their book, High Growth Trajectory and Structural Changes in Gujarat Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management (IIM) professors Ravindra Dholakia and Samar Datta explained Gujarat’s agricultural success thus: “It is fully endogenous, systematically led by long-term vision and comprehensive strategy requiring solid commitment and dedication to the cause, political will to pursue market-oriented reforms of policies and institutions, interdepartmental and inter-ministerial coordination and cooperation, and a responsive and entrepreneurial farming community.”

Narendra Modi's Activities during Emergency

Due to Janta Morcha govt headed by Babubhai Patel in Gujarat,  people did not face the tremendous excesses of Emergency in Gujarat. Many activists had come and stayed in Gujarat and worked for restoring democracy in the country.
Like other RSS pracharaks, Narendra Modi  was also assigned the responsibility of making arrangements for the movement, gatherings, meetings, distribution of literature etc. Narendra Modi worked actively with Nathbhai Zagda and Vasant Gajendragadkar.
Congress govt banned RSS and jailed its leaders. Senior RSS leader Keshvrao Deshmukh was arrested in Gujarat.  The moment Modi realized that Keshavrao was arrested, he escorted another senior RSS man Nathalal Zagda to safe place riding him on a scooter.
Also during emergency Mrs. Indira Gandhi had decided to censor the independent press. Several journalists were arrested under MISA and DIR.  It appeared as if there was total blackout of true and correct information. Besides this several prominent political opponents were imprisoned. It appeared that dissemination of information would be impossible. But it was during this time that Narendrabhai and several RSS pracharaks took responsibility of fulfilling this herculean task. Narendra Modi  used innovative ways to spread information and distribute literature.

Since RSS was banned,   RSS leaders asked swayamsevaks become members Jan Sangharsh Samitis and carry on activities. It was at this time Narendrabhai felt the need to support the families of those swayamsevaks who had decided to contribute fully for the movement. Narendra Modi bhai took the initiative of identifying people who would support the families of swayamsevaks. Modi  conducted the anti emergency movement successfully remaining underground. Many confidential meetings were organized in Maninagar and Narendra Modi did this task wonderfully.

Members of  Jan Sangharsh Samiti used to do public reading of Constitution, law and other literature to inform people. Like many other RSS pracharaks, Narendra Modi  also provided support to Jan Sangharsh Samiti.

Narendra Modi was also involved in supplying information to leaders who were imprisoned by the govt. He was master of disguise and despite there was risk of his arrest he used to disguise and went to prison and supplied crucial information to leaders in jail. Not even once could the police recognize Narendrabhai.  In those days a magazine named ‘Sadhna’ decided to show courage against emergency and censorship. Narendra Modi promoted the circulation of Sadhna.

In days of emergency pracharaks of RSS including Narendrbhai were instrumental in many movements against the excesses of the Indira govt. In those days RSS supported Sangharsh Samiti organized ‘MuktiJyoti’ yatra. It was bicycle yatra in which many pracharaks participated and took out this yatra on cycle and went from one place to another spreading message of democracy.

It was in emergency only that  people became aware of brilliant skills of Narendra Modi. While he worked as selfless pracharak,  he also ensured that organization and other pracharaks didn’t face financial problem. Modi also ensured that true and correct information about excesses of emergence also reach to Indians living in other countries. Today we all have experienced the benefits of good governance of Narendrabhai but it is also important to acknowledge his contribution as a selfless karyakarta in emergency.


Narendra Modi - Election Campaigns

Ahmedabad Municipal Election Campaign

In 1987, Ahmedabad Municipal elections, Modi showed his skills in election campaigning.

1995 Gujarat Assembly Election

Working together, Modi, Vaghela and Patel mobilised more than 150,000 workers from the RSS, VHP and ABVP for a training programme just before the elections in February 1995, and the effort paid off handsomely. The BJP won 121 seats.

2012 Gujarat Assembly Election

On 17 September 2011, his birthday, Narendra Modi  began a three-day fast in Ahmedabad under the banner of Sadbhavana (goodwill)   On the first day of the fast, full-page advertisements appeared in major newspapers all across the country. That morning, his smiling picture greeted voters in every state, accompanied by a message of goodwill in their mother tongue: there were ads in Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Urdu, Assamese, and Oriya.

At the Ahmedabad fast, Modi announced that he would fast for a single day in each of the state’s 26 districts. He used the Sadbhavana roadshows as a campaign for the assembly elections.

Why Modi Became Darling of BJP and RSS Cadres?

In the past decade, as Modi triumphed in two consecutive elections and the national party suffered two defeats, he became the standard for success in the BJP

Narendra Modi's Campaign Details as Prime Minister Candidate of BJP 

May 2014

8 May 2014
Narendra Modi was denied permission to campaign in a rally in Varanasi city. The district magistrate did not give permission and also delayed permission for other programmes. BJP in protest cancelled all its programmes went ahead with a Dharna in Varanasi and Delhi. Narendra Modi only visited BJP office in Varanasi on that day.  Earlier to his visit to Varanasi, he addressed a rally in Azamgarh and Rohiniya, a part of Varanasi constituency.

5 May 2014
Narendra Modi addressed a rally in Amethi from where Rahul Gandhi is seeking reelection and Smt. Smirti Irani is contesting on BJP ticket.

December 2013

27 December
Narendra Modi was again declared not guilty in 2002 Gujarat riots. Modi wrote a blog post the next day.
This is the first time I am sharing the harrowing ordeal I had gone through in those days at a personal level.

October 2013

6 October 2013  - Completion of 12 years as CM of Gujarat.
Gujarat chief minister Mr. Narendra Modi, who took over the office of chief minister on October 7, 2001, will complete 12 years at the helm of the state’s governance.

September 2013
The Rise of Narendra Modi - IBN Live - 14 September 2013


13 September
Narendra was declared the PM candidate for the coming Lok Sabha Elections by BJP

Narendra Modi was searched one billion times on Google

Rally at Chattisgarh
Rally at Rewari, Haryana, addressed Ex Servicemen
Addressed NRIs through video conferencing
25 Sep
Participation in Karyakarta Mahakumbah, Bhopal
26 Sep
Participation in rally at Trichy, Tamil Nadu
27 Sep - Participation in Maa Amritanandamayi Centenary Celebrations
30 Sep 2013  Modi visited Mumbai and he was given a grand reception at Mumbai airport by 25,000 persons.
Modi addressed International Advertising association India Global Marketing Summit.



The speech was well appreciated by advertising specialists. Sam Balsara said, Modi is a true marketing genius and terrific communicator. He said, if his impromptu views on building brand india could be so well thought then I guess his views on economy, education, rural poor and so on would change the face of India. I think we need to give him a chance.

Subash Kamath of BBH said. He spoke from a branding, advertising and marketing point of view, far more insightfully than many ad gurus.

According Piyush Pandey, without being a marketing person, he wounderfully captured the soul of communication.

July 2013

12 July 2013
Interview with Reuters Correspondents
Interesting question
How will you persuade minorities including Muslims to vote for you?
All the citizens, all the voters, are my countrymen. So my basic philosophy is, I don’t address this issue like this. And that is a danger to democracy also. Religion should not be an instrument in your democratic process.

June 2013

9 June 2013

Narendra Modi address after being the responsibility of National Poll Panel Chief

Rajnath Singh announced that Narendra Modi will be the national poll panel chief for BJP for 2014 lok sabha elections


December 2012

26 December 2012
Modi won the Gujarat Elections for the third time and took oath as Chief Minister for the fourth time.

Gujarat chief minister Mr. Narendra Modi, who took over the office of chief minister on October 7, 2001, will complete 12 years at the helm of the state’s governance.

Modi writes poems in Gujarati

Narendra Modi as Prime Minister of India  

Narendra Modi As Prime Minister of India - 2014

Narendra Modi As Prime Minister of India - 2015

Budget 2015-16

The budget has innovative features. Supporting and promoting 58 million micro unit entrepreneurs providing employment to 128 million people even though many of them are farmers is a very good idea. Already all of them must have acquired Aadhar cars and also Jan Dhan accounts. Once they are identified as entrepreneurs and the employment they are providing is known,  just encouraging them provide one more job would mean another 50 million jobs. The digital information system will make implementing new schemes more easy as feedback can be obtained faster and instructions can be given faster. It is very nice that Modi proved his ability to influence the entire country very quickly through his jan dhan scheme.  

After Mahatma Gandhi, Modi is the person to influence the mass of the country that way into a positive action when he is not in power and also when he came into power.

Narendra Modi As Prime Minister of India - 2015

PM Narendra Modi at mid-term is good enough for re-election in 2019: Swaminathan Aiyar

By Swaminathan A Aiyar, | Jul 20, 2016,

Narendra Modi - Biography in Hindi - Narendra Modi - Biography in Telugu  - Narendra Modi Biography in Gujarati

Narendra Modi - English Speeches  -  Narendra Modi English Interviews -


Horoscope and Prediction for Narendra Modi in 2013-2014

Frontline - 28 June 2013 - Rise of Modi
Career timeline of Modi

Caravan article on Modi - 10 pages 2012

2002 Assembly election campaign issues - Front Line September 2002

2001 Frontline - article

A Pracharak as a chief minister - Frontline October 2001

Ekta Yatra - 1991-92

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July 2013

Updated  21 July 2016,  6 March 2015, 16 May 2014

Sunday, July 17, 2016

Buddhist Prayers in Various Languages and Regions

Telugu Songs on Gautam Buddha

Amulya Audios and Videos


In Maharashtra Buddhism has many new followers.

Buddham Saranam Gacchami Chant Full Song by Usha Mangeshkar
Buddha Mantra For Positive Energy


Marathi Gaurav  upload

Zoroastrianism and Its Prayer

A Brief Overview of Zoroastrianism

Calabasas Online Tutoring upload

Zoroastrian Prayer

Dasturji Nowrooz D. Minochehr-Homji Kusti Prayers

Dasturji Nowrooz D. Minochehr-Homji

Meditation Mantra/Prayer - Zarathushtra Gita

Zoroastrianism  upload

Saturday, July 16, 2016

Mobile App Development Workshop at RIMS, Rourkela, 21 - 22 July 2016

Rourkela Institute of Management Studies (RIMS), Rourkela, Odisha, one of the premier B-schools in India, is organizing a Skill Development Workshop on Mobile App Development in honor of Prof. Hrudananda Ray, on 21st and 22nd July, 2016.

The workshop aims to provide an excellent platform for students to learn about Mobile App Development from Mr. Bikram Ray, an acclaimed Mobile App/Cloud Consultant, who currently heads RxOne (a Microsoft Partner Network), Boston, USA and Prof. Sukanya Ray, SUFFOLK University, Boston, USA.

In addition to the two-day workshop, students will also receive hands-on technical guidance from Mr. Ray on 23rd and 24th July, 2016 at the RIMS Campus.

On completion of the workshop, there will be a Mobile App Development contest, for which participating students can use the college’s facilities to build their own App. Students from remote locations can also participate in this contest by registering themselves by paying a fee of ₹ 500.

Workshop Dates: 21st and 22nd July, 2016
Training Time: 6 hours per day
Eligibility: Continuing and Passout Students from BSc, BCA, MCA, BBA, MBA, B.Tech and M.Tech

Registration Fee for Workshop: ₹ 1500/- per participant
Registration for Online App Submission (For Remote Participants): ₹ 500/- per participant

Last Date of Registration: 20th July, 2016
Last Date of App Submission: 27th July, 2016

Cash Prize for Winners:
1st Prize: ₹ 50,001 + Microsoft Certification
2nd Prize: ₹ 25,001 + Microsoft Certification
3rd Prize: ₹ 15,001 + Microsoft Certification
10 Appreciation Prizes

Result Declaration and Award Ceremony: 30th July, 2016

Venue: RIMS Campus, Institutional Area, Gopabandhu Nagar, Chhend, Rourkela – 769015, Odisha

For Further Details and Registration Form visit: OR Get-in-touch with our Faculty Coordinators:
Prof. Jagadish Sahoo – 09437049040
Prof. Suneet Mathur – 0943704732

Thursday, July 14, 2016

AC City Bus Fares Slashed by 50% in Mumbai - 2016

To increase traffic, AC bus fares were slashed up to 50% in Mumbai. This move already increased the number of passengers travelling by AC  buses. As more people come to know of it, the number travelling may go up in the coming days.

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Ekatma Manav Darshan Alternative to Capitalism - Full Lecture and Video

Lecture by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. on 10 February 2016

Picture Source:

Ekatma Manav Darshan Alternative to Capitalism - Part 1


Ekatma Manav Darshan and Capitalism - Full Lecture - Audio


Before I start the topic proper, I would like to point out four things from a personal perspective.

I thank the organizers of the seminar for giving an opportunity to me, to present my thinking on the topic. This responsibility to stand before an audience comprising some senior thinkers and authors on Deendayal’s philosophy gave me the energy to read literature related to the topic of the seminar. It benefitted me personally in the first instance to know more about the topic and continue reading and thinking on the issue.

Second, I have to think of persons who helped me in starting Deendayal Vichar Manch in Kakinada in 1992. We had some meetings and bought some books at that time. That early effort is helping me today. I thank them.

Third, I would like to tell you regarding my background in the field of economics. My education is basically in mechanical engineering. My post-graduation is in industrial engineering and this subject has more content in the fields of economics, accounting and finance. Industrial engineers have  the responsibility of  doing economic analysis of various investment proposals of engineering organizations and come out with ideas to reduce capital cost, operating cost and improve return on investment through suggesting better technical alternatives. My Phd is in the area of financial economics and I worked under a renowned Professor in Economics, Prof L.M. Bhole. He has significant contributions in Monetary Economics, Financial Economics and Gandhian Economics. My background in industrial engineering and financial economics in the area of equity investments make me have a special focus on investment in physical assets and equity instruments. This has connection to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs search the environment and come out with profitable investment opportunities. Whenever the return on such investments is higher than current rate more investment is made by people and this leads to increase in growth in production and income. We would discuss the economic policy suggested by Shri Deendayal regarding investment when we describe the policy prescriptions of ekatma manav darshan.

Fourth point I would like to emphasize is my present thinking the on the economic progress of the nation. When Prime Minister Narendra Modi had put the question to people of India, Can’t we dream of 20 trillion dollar Indian economy?, I heard it and checked its feasibility. With my understanding of macroeconomy and microeconomy, I came to the conclusion that it is a feasible dream. Most of the top economists and investment experts are talking about high growth of India. We invested adequate amount in the past to achieve the expected or required growth and we can do it every year in the years to come. Presently we have a Prime Minister who understood the working of the economic system and improved the performance of the economy in Gujarat and now the country is under his stewardship. Today, his plan of cooperation between  centre and states and competition among states to spur the development of their region is being actively pursued by all the states. We require the genuine involvement of large number of people of various professions to convert the present opportunity into realized wealth, i.e.,  a strong production system of goods and services for India.  I maintain number of blogs in the areas of industrial engineering and management and I write about potential for India’s development and measures to implement “Make in India” project in my blog

I am sure the topics of the seminar today and the topic we are now discussing “Ekatma Manav Darshan & Capitalism” has something to contribute to the achievement of the dream of Param Vaibhav Bharat. India was a very prosperous country for many centuries. But, then the native Indians lost some battles and wars and became people who have to pay extra taxes to live in their own land and maintain the luxurious living of people belonging to England. The leaders of this society were subjugated. Bharat Mata suffered because, her children capable of promoting Jnana Yoga, and Raja Yoga were put in chains. But the ethos of this country helped some people to break their chains and provide leadership again. We are now fortunate to reach and occupy the shore of a sea of opportunity. We have to put in place an economic system which will help us to achieve our objectives by utilizing this sea of opportunity. Deendayalji’s policy prescriptions certainly help us in this regard.

Coming to the topic, Let us examine the system of capitalism. The economic historians say the idea of modern capitalism was developed by Adam Smith. Adam Smith developed his argument to promote the idea that the then existing systems of economy, Mercantilism and Physiocracy were not the right systems for increasing the wealth of a nation. Mercantilism was advocating state regulation to increase exports and reduce imports and also to export certain commodities and to import certain commodities. It is also advocating state regulation to ration or limit the number of producers/merchants and the amount of raw materials they can buy and store and the number of people they can employ. Mercantilism was advocating state regulation and was arguing that it will  increase  the wealth of the nation.

Physiocrats were more concerned with land as the chief productive resource and they are concerned with importance to be given to land and its use.

Adam Smith has emphasized the role of market where buyers and sellers meet and decisions to exchange  goods and money are made on the basis desires of producers and consumers. Whether food items that come from land are important or other items produced by using hands and raw materials and machines and raw materials with very less use of land are important is determined in the market place exchange. Markets can fix prices on their own and state need not fix prices based on the production cost. People make mistakes in markets and thereby suffer losses and modify their thinking and actions. Markets become penalising institutions by creating shortages and surpluses that cause unexpected losses to producers or consumers. Capitalist system based on individual freedom to consume or produce was accepted by many countries in the world and it delivered growth in wealth and incomes. No doubt the shortages and surpluses that were part of the system, resulted in huge price increases for certain commodities at some points in time causing tremendous hardship to consumers accustomed to using them for generations. Similarly, there was surplus goods that resulted in closure of number of productive establishments that resulted in huge unemployment of people with specialised skills accustomed to certain periodic expenditure. Business men suffered losses and therefore could not pay back their loans. The economic system has created prominent failures that led to suicides.

The capitalist economic system also created huge economic disparities, as capital can be created to an unlimited extent in contrast to land which is fixed in nature. The capitalists also exploited the labour ceaselessly, as the capital that can be created has no limit in theory. The labour class was exploited in various ways and this led to development of Marxist thought. Marx developed the theory that a person who feels exploitation starts a counter action. In the capitalist system, labour is exploited most and hence labour will start a revolution to change the system. The system Marx advocated has the feature that capital is owned by the state or society. It became the socialist system. Lenin could lead a successful revolution in Russia using the theories of Marx as the foundation. The revolution was exported successfully to more countries. The socialist thought of Marx found admirers in capitalist economies also and governments started owning increased amounts of capital.

Huge inequity in wealth and income, motivation to exploit labour and the consumers by the well- endowed capitalists, business cycles resulting in shortages and surpluses are the chief problems of capitalism. The problems of capitalism were identified and discussed and some alternatives were provided by western thinkers themselves.

I would like to stress at this stage that any criticism of capitalism by Deendayal Upadhyay was only reiteration of the criticisms by the western thinkers themselves. You need not doubt that  the criticism was developed by Shri Deendayal  was only for the sake of criticism. You can read the standard textbook on Economics by Nobel Prize winner Paul Samuelson (Chapter Alternative Economic Systems) to notice all the critical statements.

What is the economic alternative suggested by thinkers of Ekatma Manav Darshan? We identify Shri Deendayal Upadhyay as the person who systematized the basic ideas now termed as Ekatma Manav Darshan. Further elaborations and  explanations were provided by Shri Guruji, Shri Dattopant Thengadi, Prof Subramanian Swamy, Prof Ashok Modak, Shri Ravindra Mahajan, Shri Aserkar, Dr. Mahesh Sharma, Shri Bajrang Lal Gupta and others.  There are contributions from academic research community also. I referred to some of them. But in this talk I would like to restrict my focus to the policy prescriptions made by Shri Deendayal in his fourth lecture.

My argument in this portion of my  lecture is that the policy prescriptions made by Shri Deendayal in his lecture entitled “Economic Structure Suited to National Genius” are logical and can be applied without any great obstacles. No doubt as Shri Deendayal himself points out every economic action has to be undertaken based on socio-economic cost benefit analysis. The action has to be based on facts we call data and analysis that tells us that there is economic benefit to the society.

The important points made are:
1. The economic system must help in the development of every human being (who is born ignorant and helpless) into God-like being (Divine being). As we know, each of us start as an infant and become a person like sanyasi who desires less from the people around but does lot for the society. No doubt in the last stages of life, most of the persons may not be able to do anything. That is why people have start helping others as soon as possible and increase the quantity to the highest level when they have the energy in their body.
2. Economic system of the nation has to be designed to provide all human necessities and goods and services required to protect the nation from aggressors. In addition to these,  there has to be objective of helping people of other nations also.
3. Production system has to understand the limitation of the nature and only milk it and leave it in an able state to provide future generations also the resources. The biodiversity in nature that keeps certain desirable properties of the nature in proper quantities has to be understood and preserved.
4. In the production system only a limited number work and they have to provide all the facilities to the remaining population. Children, old people, housewives have to be provided all the facilities required by employed persons. So the system has to recognize that people with ability, work and provide to all. A man works not only for his bread alone, but also to provide for the needs of all others who are dependent on him.
5. Education is compulsory for all children. The economic system has to involve both family members and society to see to it that children are provided with adequate education. Education is a social responsibility along with it being the responsibility of parents.
6. Adequate medical facilities have to be there in the economic system and even free medical treatment has to be provided.
7. Everybody who wants to work must find employment in the economic system.
8. Capital formation has to take place and it will be good if every person can see the capital that is formed due to his effort. When the capital formed due to a person is credited to his account only, he will not feel that he is being exploited by people creating capital. Therefore a system is to be designed that accumulates  a certain amount of capital in the account of every person who is working.
9. We have to employ machines to the extent we relieve workers from the burden and increase productivity. Machines should not replace labour and make them unemployed. Buying and installing machines have to be planned in such a way that they do not displace existing workers. New employment must come up with new investment as needed by the society.
10. Seven ‘M’s are to be properly understood and employed optimally in the production system. These are 1. Man  2. Material 3. Money  4. Management  5. Motive power  6. Market and 7. Machine.
11. The ownership of capital can be with the state, individuals or any other entity based on pragmatic or economic analysis.
12. Swadeshi and Decentralization are the two words that characterise the economic system to be designed for India.

Swadeshi means increase or improvement of all parameters of our Swadesh. Some of these  parameters are GDP, National Income, Per capita income, literacy rate, life expectancy etc. Decentralization of power of allocating resources is required to ensure effectiveness and also efficiency. According to my studies, India needs to invest Rs. 55 lakh crore in 2016-2017. This means on an average investment of Rs. 10,000 crore has to take place in every parliamentary constituency. Lok Sabha members are the representatives of people interacting with the political executive as well as public administrative service executives. They have to take up the task of facilitating this investment target in the constituency. They have to arrange for interactive sessions with other representatives of people, mayors, municipal chairmen, panchayat presidents, local organizations belonging to agriculture, industry, services,  academicians and researchers to identify investment opportunities and set up organizations to increase production of goods and services. There is clear existing  opportunity for MPs and MLAs to take initiative and guide development in a decentralized manner in the country. I think, as a part of NITI Ayog budget, each MP is given say Rs. One crore per year to organize development related seminars and publish its proceedings in print, broadcast and online media. Such an activity makes discussion related to development a local issue and people come to know of their role in providing themselves with goods and services through various special organizations and their family production units.

Deendayalji concluded his lecture by saying that we have to revitalize our culture to make it dynamic and in tune with the times (Yuganukul) so that our society is enabled to live a healthy, progressive and purposeful life. We have to produce such institutions as will kindle a spirit of action in us.

Let us turn our attention to analytical imperatives suggested by Deendayalji.

Machine: A machine developed internally or imported must provide economic return. Machines have to be brought only after proper economic analysis that indicates adequate expected profit.

Idle machine is losing proposition to an industrialist. Similarly idle manpower is losing proposition to the society. Full employment of all willing people of the society has to be the primary objective of economic planning and technology choices have to be made with full employment as a constraint.
There has to be advance planning for the skills required for the technologies to be implemented. You should not keep your recently acquired machines idle because required skilled manpower is not there. You should not bring foreign technicians.

Availability of raw materials has to be assessed and then only investment decisions are made to optimally utilize available resources.

Capital formation has to be planned. Available capital has to be appropriately allocated to fixed capital and working capital.

Economic energy forms are to be used based on their availability. Energy productivity analysis is to be done and energy input has to be minimized.

We have to educate and  develop managers/leaders.  If we cannot develop people who can coordinate at least a dozen people, all other resources remain underutilized and we will underperform other nations.

Good understanding of the consumers’ requirements has to be there in the economic system. The economic analysis has to be based on the preferences indicated by the people.

Bharatiya technology has to be developed. Technology suited to optimal utilization of our resources subject to the constraint of full employment of persons with the desire to work is Bharatiya technology. Swadeshi ideal demands that we develop and employ Bharatiya technology.

I feel the policy prescriptions made by the proponents of Ekatma Manav Darshan are practical and productive.  We need to apply them in our economic practice at microeconomic level and ask the representatives of people and the politicians in government to implement them in macroeconomic decision making. It is only through writing memorandums and engaging in dialogue process that we can enrich the economic thought based on Ekatma Manav Darshan and also come across difficulties likely to come up during implementation.

During my reading of various articles and research papers, I came across the framework of capitalism outlined by a Harvard Professor with self interest and freedom as the two input variables. I modified the framework to reflect the commonly known Indian social values and the associated ways uplifting oneself.

The framework is  Inputs (behavioural) – Economic System (Society, Govt., Business, Trade Unions)  -  Outputs

Economic Model Based on Ekatma Manav Darshan (Integral Humanism)

|Self Interest, Others' Interests, Freedom subject to Principles of Dharma|
| (Kama),               (Moksh)                                                      (Dharma)              |
                                                       Leads to

| Individual learning,  Individual Activity, Increase in Knowledge,  Innovation, Social Activity,
|     (Dharma),                 (Karma)                   (Jnana)                                              

Major Adventures (Public and Private)|                                
     (Rajayogic ventures|

                                                        In turn leads to

|Growth in Wealth, Social stability, Socially Committed People|
|  (Artha,                                                             (Bhakti)                     |

I posted the model in my blog and circulated it to large number of people for comments. I request to go through the model at leisure and give your comments on how we can refine and explain the components of the model.
Thank you for the patient hearing and look forward to your comments and suggestions first and then your raising specific points that need more clarification.

Ekatma Manav Darshan & Capitalism by Dr. KVSS Narayana Rao

Economic Model Based on Ekatma Manav Darshan (Integral Humanism) by K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao

First Published on 24 January 2016, 1.52 pm (Indian Standard Time)

|Self Interest, Others' Interests, Freedom subject to Principles of Dharma|
| (Kama),        (Moksh)                 (Dharma)                                               |

                                                       Leads to

| Individual learning,  Individual Activity, Increase in Knowledge,  Innovation, Major Adventures|
|     (Dharma),                 (Karma)                   (Jnana)                                         (Rajayogic ventures|

                                                        In turn leads to

|Growth in Wealth, Social stability, Socially Committed People|
|  (Artha,                                                     (Bhakti)                     |

Ideas for enlarging the model.

In the intermediate step we can include activities of  Consumers and Social Sector Organizations, Government and Political Parties, Business Organizations and Trade Unions. Thus we identify and bring activities of people in the society into the model.

Bhakti can be interpreted commitment to the society, commitment to the organizations and to the people managing the organizations. Commitment will come only when people take care of desires of other people (stakeholders) apart from their own.

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Deeadayalji's Book,-2015#page/3/2

Mahesh Chandra Sharma

Pandit deendayal uppadhyaye ke tatva vichar praman vichar evm shaikshik praroop ka vartman bhartiya sandarbh main upadeyta ka adhyyan
Researcher: Gupta, Geetu
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Bhartiya rajneeti meain sampardayikta evam dharmnirpekshvad 1990 ke dashak meain bhartiya janta party ke pariprakshya meain ek samikshatmak adyyan
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Vartman bharatiya rashtriya parivesh mein Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay ke shaikshik vicharon ka alochanatmak adhyayan (वर्तमान भारतीय राष्ट्रीय परिवेश में पं. दीनदयाल उपाध्याय के शैक्षिक विचारों का आलोचनात्मक अध्ययन)
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This book attempts to present a roadmap for the re-devlopment and re-construction of a nation as diverse and as huge as India. The roadmap takes into account India's unique histrory, culture and ethos. The ideas and concepts presented in this book are of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayaya. This book is also a tribute to a rishi like Deen Dayal on his 100th birth anniversary.

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What is the purpose of our economic system? What would a more life-serving economy look like? There are many books about business and society, yet very few of them question the primacy of GDP growth, profit maximization and individual utility maximization. Even developments with a humanistic touch like stakeholder participation, corporate social responsibility or corporate philanthropy serve the same goal: to foster long-term growth and profitability. Humanism in Business questions these assumptions and investigates the possibility of creating a human-centered, value-oriented society based on humanistic principles. An international team of academics and practitioners present philosophical, spiritual, economic, psychological and organizational arguments that show how humanism can be used to understand, and possibly transform, business at three different levels: the systems level, the organizational level and the individual level. This groundbreaking book will be of interest to academics, practitioners and policymakers concerned with business ethics and the relationship between business and society.

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V.P. Varma
Motilal Banarsidass Publ., Jul 1, 2006 - 211 pages

An attempt has been made in this book to reconstruct idealist humanist philosophy on the basis of Eastern and Western metaphysics and the natural sciences. It supports the basic principle of ethical absolutism as opposed to relativism. It analysis the fundamental principles of humanist political thought with reference to sovereignty, obligation and rights.It is hoped that policy-makers and planers in the developing countries will find here an integral world-view and exposition of concrete technics to meet the challanges of the hour.

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The major problems facing the world as it gets used to the twenty-first century are global inequality, poverty, war and militarism, oppression, exploitation and ecological sustainability. Far from solving these problems, economic and political neo-liberalism seems to be plunging us deeper into them. Diverse opposition movements have arisen over the years to combat these problems, which the groups generally consider to be the result of "globalization". These opposition movements suffer greatly from being opposed to lots of things without necessarily putting forward realistic alternative suggestions. This impressive new book seeks to analyze and develop serious alternatives to the status quo. With contributions from a wide range of scholars, this important book will provide a uniquely varied outlook. Students and academics involved in international politics and economics as well as general readers with an interest in the anti-globalization movement will find this work incredibly useful.

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Love your fellow beings. This is bhakti.

Jaya Row, in the article "Successful People Look Beyond the Obvious" published in Times of India on 16 July 2016, wrote, "Feel universal love, free from selfishness, expectations and demands. Love your fellow beings. This is bhakti. Swearing love to an unseen God when you hate people around you is not devotion."

Updated on  16 July 2016, 10 Feb 2016, 1 Feb 2016