Tuesday, October 31, 2017

Birthdays and Biographies - Famous Indians











                              Google Doodle 6 July 2014

Famous Indians - Politicians - Artists - Businessmen - Scientists - Sportsmen

INDIAN EXPRESS POWER LIST 2016 – TOP 50 - Slide Show
http://www.msn.com/en-in/news/photos/indian-express-power-list-2016-%E2%80%93-top-50/ss-BBq0sCF?ocid=SK2MDHP#

January - Birthdays - Famous Indians



Indian History of the Day


 1          2       3     4        5       6      7     8        9     10

11       12     13    14      15     16    17    18      19     20

21       22     23    24      25     26    27    28      29     30

31


  1 -  Satyendra Nath Bose(1894), Asrani (1941),  Nana Patekar(1951),  Sonali Bendre,Vidya Balan,
        Mohsina Kidwai, Salman Kurshid (1953), R.A. Mashelkar (1943)
  2 - Srinivas Varadan (1940), Kirti Azad (1959),
  3 - Savitribhai Phule (1831), Jaswant Singh (1938), Sanjay Khan (1941), Chetan Sharma, Veepandiya Kattabomman (1760)
  4 - Nirupa Roy, Aditya Pancholi, Gurudas Mann, Naina Lal Kidwai, Deependersingh Hooda, Suresh Bapurao Wankhede
  5 - Shah Jahan (1594), Parama Hamsa Yogananda (1893), Murli Manohar Joshi (1934),
        Kalyan Singh (1932), Sushil Modi (1952),  Deepika Padukone (1986), Mamata Banerjee (1955),
        MAK Pataudi (1941) Sushil Kumar Modi (1952), Arjun Munda (1968)
  6 - Kapil Dev (1959),  A. R. Rehman (1967) - Music Composer, Bindiaya Goswamy (1962), D.P. Tripathy,
  7 - B. Saroja Devi, Reena Roy, V.S. Krishna Iyer, Baba Kalyani (1949), Shobha De (1948), Johny Lever, Bipasha Basu, Nafisa Ali, Saeed Jaffrey,
  8 - Nanda
  9 - Mahendra Kapoor, Kaushik basu, Har Gobind Khorana, Sundarlal Bahuguna, Farah Khan,
10 - Hrithik Roshan, K.J. Yesudas, Basu Chatterjee,
11 - Nobel Laureate Kailash Satyarthi (1954) , Rahul Dravid, Shekhar Gupta, Shibu Soren, M.J. Akbar
12 - Maharshi Mahesh Yogi, Veerappa Moily, Mufti Mohammed Sayeed (1936), Jijabai (1598), Swami Vivekananda (1863), Priyanka Gandhi (1972)
13 - Rakesh Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Shakti Samanta (1926)
14 - Vikram Pandit, Shobhan Babu, C.D. Deshmukh (1896),  Rao Gopala Rao (1937),  Jandhyala,
15 - Mayawati,  Bhanupriya, Pritish Nandy,
16 - Mahadev Govind Ranade, O.P. Nayyar, Nanabhoy Palkhivala, Jaipal Reddy, Kabir Bedi
17 - Russi Mody (1918), Bindu, Javed Akhtar, L.V. Prasad, Kamal Amrohi,
18 - Vinod Kambli,
19 - Kaifi Azmi,
20 - Krishnam Raju, Ajit Kumar Doval, B. Vittalacharya
21 - Madhu Dandavate, Sushant Singh Rajput,
22 - Vijay Anand, Namrata Shirodkar,
23 - Subhash Chandra Bose - 1897 Congress President - Founder Azad Hind Fouz, Ramesh Sippy (1947),  Kamal Nayan Bajaj (1915),        Balasaheb Thackeray  (1926) Supreme Leader Shiv Sena - Maharashtra
24 - Subhash Ghai - Film Producer and Director, Mukta Arts, Karpoori Thakur, M.M. Pallam Raju,
25 - A.P. Balachandran - Physics Professor, Kavita Krishna Murty, Bibek Debroy,
26 - Shivlal Yadav - Cricketer, Ravi Teja,
27 - Amar Singh, Bobby Deol, Ajit,
28 - Lala Lajpat Rai, Raja Ramanna, Shruti Haasan, Vinod Khosla. Field Marshal Cariappa, Pandit Jasraj,
29 - Veturi Sundara Ramamurty, Mosalikanti Tirumala Rao
30 - Digvijay Singh, Prakash Javadekar, C. Subrahmnaym,
31 - Major Somnath Sharma (1923), Preity Zinta (1975)

February - Birthdays - Eminent Indians


  1 - Jackie Shroff (1957), Ajay Jadeja, Brahmandam (1956), A.K. Hangal, Manoj Tiwari,
  2 - Kushwant Singh (1915)
  3 - Waheeda Rehman, Raghuram Rajan, Deepti Naval,
  4 - Bhimsen Joshi, Birju Maharaj, Urmila Matondkar,
  5 - Abhishek Bachchan, Besant C. Raj (1933)
  6 - J. Rameshwara Rao - MP - 2nd to 6th Lok Sabha - Mahbubnagar, Andhra Pradesh
  7 - Sheila Kaul - Chief Minister, Delhi
  8 - Zakir Hussain, Mohammed Azahruddin, Dr. Desh Bandhu Gupta (Founder and Chairman, Lupin Limited)
  9 - A.R. Antulay, Amrita Singh, K. Viswanadh, N.J. Yasaswy (1950)
10 - Jagannath Shunkershet, Pranab Roy (1957)
11 - Tina Munim (1957), T. Nagi Reddy,
12 - Dayananda Saraswati (1824), Ajit Singh, Gundappa Viswanath,
13 - Sarojini Naidu, Vinod Mehra,
14 - Sushma Swaraj, Madhu Bala (1933), Y.K. Alagh,
15 - Randhir Kapoor, Namdeo Dhasal,
16 - Lagadapati Rajagopal  - MP, I.S. Johar,
17 - Praful Patel (1957), K.Chandra Sekhara Rao (1954)
18 - Chaitanya Mahaprabhu(1486), Rama Krishna Paramahamsa (1836), Rafi Ahmed Kidwai(1954), Swaraj Paul(1931), Nimmi,
19 - Shivaji(1630), Guruji Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (1906)
20 - N. Janardana Reddy, Vijaya Nirmala, Annu Kapoor,
21 - Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
22 - S.H. Raza - Painter
23 - P.C. Sorcar - Magician
24 - Jayalalita (1948), Abhishek Manu Singhvi (1959),  Snajay Leela Bhansali (1963), Pooja Bhatt (1972), Joy Mukherjee, Talat Mahmood,
25 - Danny Denzonpa, Farokh Engineer (1938), Divya Bharati (1974), Shahid Kapoor (1981), Balaraj Madhok (1920), Meher Baba (1894)
26 - Bandaru Dattatreya - MP - Andhra Pradesh, Manmohan Desai,
27 - Prakash Jha (1952) - Film Producer, Kusumagraj (1912)
28 - Krishan Kant - 10th Vice President of India, Ravindra Jain (1944)
29 - Morarji Desai, Rukmini Devi Arundale

March - Birthdays - Great Indian Persons


1 - Nitish Kumar, Mary Kom, Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, Kunjasrani Devi, M.K. Stalin (1953)
2 - Dharmendra Yadav (MP),
3 - Jamsetji Tata (1839),  M.L. Jaisimha, Swami Chinmayananda,
4 - Rohan Bopanna (1980), Bulusu Sambamurty,
5 - Shivraj Singh Chauhan, Biju Patnaik, Vasant Sathe
6 - Pendyala Nageswara Rao (Telugu Music Director), M.V. Nadkarni, Raj N. Sippy,
7 - Ghulam Nabi Azad, Anupam Kher, Nari Contractor,
8 - Vasundhara Raje, Digambar kamat, Sahir Ludhianvi, Fardeen Khan,
9 - Soli Sorabjee, Zakir Hussain (1951), Sashi Tharoor, Naveen Jindal (1970)
10 - Madhavrao Scindia, Omar Abdulla, Asghar Ali Engineer, U.R. Rao
11 - Maharajah Sayaji Rao III (1863), Amarinder Singh, Vijay Hazare, Vinod Dua,
12 - Yashvantrao Chavan, Shreya Ghoshal (1984),
13. Varun Gandhi (1980)
14 - Amir Khan (1965), Farida Jalal (1949),  K.V. Mahadevan (1918), Rohit Shetty (1973),
15 - Kanshi Ram (1934), Uday Kotak (1959), Sahib Singh Verma (1943), Abhay Deol (1976), Tarun Tejpal (1963)
16 - Potti Sriramulu (1901), Nawab of Pataudi (Cricket), Malhar Rao Holkar (1693)
17 - Prithviraj Chavan, Kalpana Chawla, Saina Nehwal, Manohar Aich (1912)
18 - Shashi Kapoor, Danve Raosaheb (1955), Navin Nischol,  Eknath Solkar (1948)
19 - D.V. Sadananda Gowda, Mohan Babu, Abbas Ali Beg,
20 - Madan Lal, Alka Yagnik, P.C. Alexander
21 - Sardar Butasingh, Rani Mukherjee, Ustad Bismillakhan,
22 - Jual Oram - MP - Former Minister GOI, Sanjay Kirloskar (1957), Surya Sen (1894)
23 - Smt. Smriti Irani (1976), Ram Manohar Lohia, Kiran Mazumdar Shaw (1953), G.D. Naidu
24 - Muthuswamy Dikshitar, Mohit Sen - Secretary, Communist Party, Prahlad Kakkar,
25 - Suravaram Sudhakara Reddy - MP - Andhra Pradesh, Farooq Shaikh (1948)
26 - Rajeev Motwani (Professor Computer Science), Prakash Raj
27 - Oscar Fernandez, Ram Charan Teja,
28 - Polly Umrigar, Chittoor Nagayya, Moon Moon Sen,
29 - Utpal Dutt
30 - Rajiv Pratap Rudy, Devika Rani,
31 - Sheila Dixit, Meira Kumar, Guru Angad Dev, Koneru Hampi, Shiela Dixit, Kamala Das,



April - Birthdays - Great Indians


  1 - Dr. Hedgewar, Guru Tej Bahadur, Fauza Singh, M.A. Ansari, Ajit Wadekar,
  2 - Swami Narayan (1781), Ajay Devgn, Ustad bade Ghulam Ali Khan,
  3 - Sam Manek Shaw (1914), Ramnath Goenka, Jaya Prada,
  4 - Kundan Lal Saigal, Parveen Babi,
  5 - Jagjivan Ram, Manjula,
  6 - Dilip Vengsarkar, Prof K.S.S. Nambooripad, suchitra Sen,
 7 - Pandit Ravishankar (1920) - Sitar player, Jeetendra,  Ram Gopal Varma,
 8 - Bhupinder Singh
 9 - Jairam Ramesh, Jaya Bhaduri Bachchan, Sharon Prabhakar,
10 - G.D. Birla, Mani Shankar Aiyar, Narayana Rane, Kishori Amonkar

11 - Kasturba Gandhi, Rohini Hattangadi, Ramnathan Krishnan, Jaimini Roy (painter)
12 - Vinoo Mankad, Sumitra Mahajan,
13 - Najma Heptulla, Prof Ajoy Ghose (1934)
14 - B.R. Ambedkar, Margaret Alva
15 - Guru Nanak (1469), Arjan Singh (Marshal of the Airforce), Guru Arjun Dev (1563), Manoj Prabhakar,
16 - Jai Prakash (MP, UP), Laura Dutta, Swati Tirunal Rama Varma (1813),
17 - Sant Sri Asaramji Bapu
18 - Dr. Dhondo Keshav Karve - Maharshi Keshav Karve (1858),  Poonam Dhillon, 1904 - Ramanath Goenka, founder of Indian Express news paper, 1914 - Cottari Subbanna Naidu (C.K. Naidu), 1918 - Lalita Pawar
19 - Mukesh Ambani (1957)
20 - N. Chandrababu Naidu (1950), Mamta Kulkarni,

21 - S. Venkataraghavan (1945,Cricket)
22 - Smt. D. Purandareswari (1959), Chetan Bhagat, B.R. Chopra
23 - S. Janaki (Telugu Playback Singer),  1858 - Pandita Ramabai, 1913 - Dhananjay Keer
24 - Sachin Tendulkar, Raj Kumar (Kannada Actor), Arun Nehru, L. Ganeshan, Mac Mohan
25 - H.N. Bahuguna, Arthur Peck
26 - 1762 - Syama Sastry - Musician, 1813 - Swami Tirunal Rama Varma, Moushumi Chatterjee
27 - 1857 - J.F. Madan,  J.V. Somayajulu (Sankarabharanam, Telugu Movie Actor)
28 - Era Seziyan (DMK)
29 - Raja Ravi Varma (painter), 1909 - Tukodji Maharaj, 1936 - Zubin Mehta, Ajit Jogi, Ramachandra Guha
30 - Dadasaheb Phalke, 1896 - Maa Anandamayee,  Sri Sri (Telugu revolutionary poet), Rohit Sharma,

May


  1-  1867 -  Kasinadhuni Nageswara Rao, Ananda Mahindra, Balraj Sahni, Manna Dey
  2 - K.N. Govindacharya, Satyajit Ray,
  3 - V.K. Krishan Menon, Uma Bharti (1959), Tukojirao Holkar (1835), Aruna Irani, Ashok Gehlot,
  4 - Tyagaraja, 1921 - Mrinal Sen, Aarthi Agarwal, Sam Pitroda, Dasari Narayana Rao, Trisha,
  5 - 1479 - Guru Amardasji, Zail Singh, Pithapuram Nageswara Rao, Gulshan Kumar (1956),
  6 - Motilal Nehru, Gagan Narang,
  7 - Rabindranath Tagore (1861),  Padma Bhushan Narayan Subbarao Hardikar (1889), M.R. Pai, Aathreya,
  8 - Swami Chinmayananda (1916), Devi Prasad Shetty,
  9 - Maharana Pratap (1540),  Gopala Krishna Gokhale (1866)
10 - 1905 - Pankaj Malik - Film Music Director, Tarachand Barjatya (1914), Sir Jamsetji Jeejeeboy, 1927 - Nayantara Sahgal

11 - 1895 - Jiddu Krishna Murthy, Asaf Ali (Governor Orissa), Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Pooja Bedi
12.  Jiddu Krishna Murty, 1930 - Admiral R.H. Tahiliyani, former Navy Chief of India,
 Rangarajan Kumar Mangalam
13 - Ronald Ross, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar (1956), 1916 Vasudev Mahadev Salgaonkar (Industrialist). 1918 Balasaraswati (Bharata Natyam Dancer), Asaduddin Owaisi, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed,
14 - Sambhaji (1657), Zarine Khan (Film Actor), Mrinal Sen, Waheeda Rehman,
15 - Sukhdev Thakur(1907), 1864 - Mahavirprasad Dwivedi,  Madhuri Dixit, Vijay Kelkar, Devendranath Tagore,
16 - Swami Muktananda, 1926 Manik Varma Singer, K. Natwar Singh
17 - B.S. Chandra Sekhar, Pankaj Udhas (1951)
18 - H.D. Devegowda (1933), Farida Jalal, Thawar Chand Gehlot,
19 - Nanasahib Peshwa (1824) - Freedom War Leader, Neelam Sanjiva (Sanjeeva)  Reddy (1913), Ruskin Bond (1934), Girish Karnad, Nathuram Godse (1910)
20 - 1399 - Sant Kabir, 1750 - Tipu Sultan, 1850 - Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar - Father of Modern story writing in Marathi,  Anant Kumar Hegde (1968), 1960 - Bhoopendra Singh - 2009 Lok Sabha Member, 1964 - P.T. Usha,  NTR Jr. (1983)

21 - G.S. Maddala (Econometric Book author)
22 - Raja Rammohan Roy, 1917 Suniti Chaudhary - Freedom fighter, E.A.S. Prasanna, Mehbooba Mufti, Homi Wadia,
23 - Maharani Gayatri Devi, Chandra Mohan, 1973 - Ms. Bhawana Pundlikrao Gawali - 2009 Lok Sabha Member
24 - 1928 - K. Jana Krishna Murthy - BJP President, Rajesh Roshan, Rajdeep Sardesai
25 - Rash Behari Bose, 1899 - Nazrul Islam,  Ramesh Chennithala, Karan Johar,
26 - 1885 - Govindagraj (Ram Ganesh Gadkari), 1926 - Kankalta, freedom fighter, Assam, 1935 - Swami Mrugendra Chennaya, Social Scientist, Maharashtra, Aruna Roy (Social Activist, RTI), Vilasrao Deshmukh, Sushil Kumar (Olympics, Wrestling)
27 - Nitin Gadkari, Ravi Shastri, Shantanu Narayen,
28 - V.D. Savarkar, 1895 - Bagal Bhai Madhavrao Khanderao, freedom fighter,  N.T. Rama Rao, S.L. Kirloskar, 1959 - Abdul Rahman - 2009 Lok Sabha Member
29 - Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major
30 - V. Narayan Samy (MP), Jag Mohan Dalmiya, Paresh Rawal, 1955 - Dr. Rajan Sushant - 2009 Lok Sabha Member, V. Narayan Samy - Lok Sabha Member, Ness Wadia,
31 - Ahilyabai Holkar, Pankaj Roy, Krishna

June


  1 - Nargis (1929), Satyendranath Tagore, Karnam Malleswari,
  2 - Nandan Nilekani, Sonakshi Sinha, Mani Ratnam (1956), Illairaja, Babulal Gaur, Anant Geete,
  3 - M. Karunanidhi, George Fernandez,
  4 - Vayalar Ravi - Lok Sabha Member, Rajya Sabha Member, Minister (GOI), S.P. Balasubrahmanyam, Anil Ambani, Nutan,
  5 - Ramesh Krishnan (Tennis), Rambha,
  6 - Sunil Dutt (1929), D. Rama Naidu
  7 - Mahesh Bhupati - Tennis - Grandslam events Champion, Ekta Kapoor, Jayanti Natarajan,
  8 - Dimple Kapadia, Shilpa Shetty, Ronnie Screwala,
  9 - Kiran Bedi, A.M. Naik, Amisha Patel, Nandini Satpathy, Sonam Kapoor,
10 - Rahul Bajaj, Prakash Padukone, Nandamuri Balakrishna,
11 - Subodh Kant Sahay
12 - E. Sridharan, Sharada Urvashi,
13 - E.M.S. Namboodripad, Raj Reddy
14 - Raj Thackeray, Kumar Mangalam Birla, Vic Gundotra (Google G+), Kirron Kher, Bharat Bhushan,
15 - Anna Hazare (1937), Lakshmi Mittal, Suraiya (1929), Dr. Kambhampati Haribabu (1953)
16 - Arvind Kejriwal, Mithun Chakraborti,
17 - Leander Paes (1973),
18 - K.S. Sudarshan (RSS SSC)
19 - Rahul Gandhi,  Salman Rushdie, Kajal Aggarwal, Guru Har Gobind (1595)
20 - Ramakant Desai, Vikram Seth,
21 - Vasant Dada Patil,
22 - Subash Ghishing, Amrish Puri,
23 - Virbhadra Singh, Raj Babbar (1952)
24 - Anita Desai, Vijaya Shanti, Murali Mohan,
25 - V.P. Singh, Sucheta Kripalani, Karisma Kapoor,
26 - Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj (1874), Dharmendra Pradhan,
27 - Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, R.D. Burman
28 - P.V. Narasimha Rao (1921), Jaspal Rana, Mullapudy Venkata Ramana,
29 - P.C. Mahalanobis
30 - C.N.R. Rao

July


  1 - Venkaiah Naidu,  Brijmohan Lall Munjal (1923), Ram Naresh Yadav, Akhil;esh Yadav, Hariprasad Chaurasia,
  2 - Jaya Lalita, Goutami.
  3 - S.V. Ranga Rao (Very popular Telugu character actor), Harbhajan Singh,
  4 - S.S. Ahluwalia
  5 - Ram Vilas Paswan, Rakesh Jhunjhunwala, P.V. Sindhu,
  6 - Syama Prasad Mukherjee - Founder, Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna       
       (Carnatic Music Exponent), M.S. Sathyu
  7 - MS Dhoni
  8 - Jyoti Basu, Neetu Singh, Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy (1949), Sourav Ganguli,
  9 - Sukhbir Singh Badal, Guru Dutt, Sanjeev Kumar, K. Balachander, Gummadi Venkateswara Rao
10 - Sunil Gavaskar (1949), Rajnath Singh, Meghnad Desai, Kota Srinivasa Rao, Vani Viswanath, Kona Prabhakara Rao, Alok Nath (1956)
11 - Suresh Prabhakara Prabhu, Jhumpa Lahiri, Kumar Gaurav, Naushad,
12 - Sanjay Manjrekar, Y.V. Chandrachud, Bimal Roy,
13 - Prakash Mehra
14 - Shiv Nadar, P. Upendra, Kailas Joshi,
15 - K. Kamaraj, K.L. Rao,
16 - Aruna Asaf Ali, Katrina Kaif (1984),
17 - Zarina Wahab, Ravi Kishan (1971)
18 - Priyanka Chopra, Soundarya,
19 - Jayant Narlikar, Roger Binny,
20 - Ashok Kumar, Naseeruddin Shah,
21 - Shankersinh Vaghela, Chetan Chauhan, Anand Bakshi, Chandu Borde,
22 - Mukesh, Ananth Kumar (1959), Ajit Pawar, Dasaradhi,
23 - Balagangadhara Tilak (1856), Chandra Sekhar Azad (1906), Himesh Reshamiya,
24 - Azim Premji, Himesh Reshamia, Kesubhai Patel, Manoj Kumar,
25 - Kaikala Satyanarayana (1935)  - Telugu Film Actor - Biography and Films Videos, Harsimrat Kaul Badal, Somnath Chatterjee,
26 - Jagdish Bhagwati (Prof, Economics)
27 - Rahul Bose, Uddhav Thakeray, V. Madhusudhan Rao,
28 - Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Ayesha Julka, dhanush,
29 - Sanjay Dutt,        Anup Jalota ,  J.R.D. Tata, Sanjay Dutt (1959), Madhav singh Solanki, C. Narayana Reddy,
30 - Mandakini,         Sonu Sood, sonu Nigam,
31 - Sonu Nigam, Munshi Premchand, Mumtaj

August


  1 - Dr. Prabhakar Kore - Rajya Sabha Member Karntaka - BJP, Purushottam Das Tandon, Kamala
        Nehru, Meena Kumari,
  2 - Vinod Chopra, Bellary Raghava, Pingali Venkayya (1876,Designer of India's flag), Arshad Ayub,
  3 - Ms. Anu Aga - Rajya Sabha Member - nominated, Ramkishun - 2009 Lok Sabha Member,
        Balwindersingh Sandhu (1956) - bowled Gordon Greenidge in World Cup 1983, Vanisree (1948), Shakeel Badayuni, Arun Bhatia.
  4 - Kishore Kumar,  Arbaaz Khan, Udham Singh (1928), Mandali Venkata Krishna Rao (1926)
    Google Doodle 2014

  5 - Kajol (1974), Genelia DSouza, Venkatesh Prasad,
  6 - Prof Saugata Roy - Lok Sabha Member - AITC  - WB,        Kamalesh Paswan -  Lok Sabha Member - BJP - UP, Avinash Dixit
  7 - A.B. Shukla - IAS Officer (UT), O.P. Jindal, M.S. Swaminathan (1925)
  8 - Paul Manoj Pandian - Rajya Sabha Member - AIADMK,      - Kapil Sibal   Lok Sabha Member - Congress - Delhi - Cabinet Minister GOI, Dilip Sardesai, Dada Kondke, C.K. Prahlad,
  9 - Smt. Sarika Devendra Singh Baghel -  Lok Sabha Member - RLD - Haryana, Mahesh Babu,
10 - V.V. Giri (1894), Ram Singh Kaswan -  Lok Sabha Member - BJP - Rajastan
11 - Sunil Shetty, Duvvuri Subba Rao (1949)
12 - Vikram Sarabhai (1919), Yechuri Sitaram (1952) - Rajya Sabha Member - CPM - West Bengal
13 - Sridevi (1963), Vyjayantimala (1936),      - Smt. Renuka Chowdhury - Rajya Sabha Member - Congress - Andhra Pradesh, Prince Rama Varma, S. Varalakshmi (1929)
14 - Johny Lever, Madhavi, Sunidhi Chauhan, Kuldip Nayar, Rajah Ram Mohan Roy (1774)
15 - Aurobindo, Raakhee, Rajasulochana, Arjun Sarja, Srihari, Suhashini,
16 - Arvind Kejriwal (1968)  Manisha Koirala, Saif Ali Khan,  Alice Vaz R. - IAS, Gouthu Latchanna (1909), Mahesh Manjrekar, David Dhawan,
17 - Dr. Y.V. Reddy - Former RBI Governor, Sachin, Murasoli Maran,
18 - Gulzar, Sandeep Patil, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (1900)
19 - Shankar Dayal Sharma - Former President - India, G.K. Moopanar,
20 - Narayan Guru, Rajiv Gandhi, Rajendra K. Pachauri (1940), N.R. Narayana Murty (1946)
20 - P. Kannan - Rajya Sabha Member - Congress - Puducherry
21 - Sudhakarrao Naik, A. Narendra, Amjad Khan, Ahmed Patel,
22 - Chiranjeevi - Telugu Film Hero - Rajya Sabha Member - Former Minister, Central Government, Neville Wadia (1911)
23 - Saira Banoo, Balaram Jhakar (1923), Tanguturi Prakasham (1872)
24 - Sajjan Singh Verma -  Lok Sabha Member - Congress - MP, Sikandar Bhakt, Anjali Devi,
25 - Vijaykanth - Actor and Politician - Tamil Nadu
26 - Mother Teresa, Maneka Gandhi, Bansi Lal,
27 - Sir Dorabji Tata, Neha Dhupia,
28 - Jagadish Singh Rana -  Lok Sabha Member - BSP - UP, Subir Raha, Priya Dutt,
29 - Dhyan Chand (1905), Nagarjuna Akkineni - Telugu Film Hero, Rama Krishna Hegde (1926), Gidugu Venkata Ramamurthy (Telugu Language Day).
30 - Ravi Shankar Prasad -  Rajya Sabha Member - BJP - Bihar, Jamuna (1936)
31 - Amrita Pritam (1919),  Dr. M. Mangapati Pallam Raju (1962), Javagal Srinath (1969), Aarudra (1925)

September



1 - Bhaktivedanta Swami (1896), Radha Mohan Singh (1949) - Lok Sabha Member - Prem Chand Guddu - Lok Sabha Member, P.A. Sangma (1947), Chembai (1896)
2 - Sadhana, Ishant Sharma, Haranath, Pawan Kalyan,
3 - Prithviraj Kapoor, Pyarelal Sharma, Vivek Oberoi, Shakti Kapoor,
4 - Dadabhai Naoroji, Rishi Kapoor, Kiran More, Narla Tata Rao, Sushil Kumar Shinde,
5 - Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
6 - Dr. Ratna De - Lok Sabha Member, Yashwant Sinha,
7 - Sachin Pilot - Lok Sabha Member, Mammoty, M.V. Kamat, Jwala Gutta, Ela Bhatt, Bhanumathi,
8 - Asha Bhonsle (1933),   Bhartruhari Mahtab - Lok Sabha Member, Bhupen Hazarika,
9 - Akshay Kumar(1967), Ganeshrao Nagorao Dudhgaonkar, Gautam Singhania, Feroze Khan, Abid Ali,
10 - Indersingh Namdhari, Yelavarty Nayudamma, C.R. Rao, Ram Jethmalani,
11 - Lala Amarnath (1911 - Cricketer), Balkrishna Khanderao Shukla, Vinoba Bhave, Sar Sanghachalak Mohan Bhagwat (1950)
12 - Puneet Issuar - Actor, Amala - Actor, Prachi Desai, Feroze Gandhi,
13 - Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy - Former Chief Minister Andhra Pradesh, G. Varalakshmi, Rajeev Shukla,
14 - Shrikant Jichkar - Politics - Multiple academic degrees, Madhavi, G.P. Sippy,
15 - Bharat Ratna Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, Subramanian Swamy, Russi Karanjia, O. Rajagopal, Annadurai, Ramya Krishna,
16 - P. Chidambaram, Bharat Ratna M.S. Subbu Lakshmi (1916), Devi Lal, B. Ramalinga Raju, Prasoon Joshi,


17 September - Birthday of Narendra Modi




17 - Narendra Modi (1950), M.F. Husain (1915), Vavilala Gopala Krishnayya (1906), Periyar E.V. Ramasamy, T. Subbarami Reddy, Lalgudi Jayaraman, Ravichandra Ashwin,
18 - Shabana Azmi, Ashwini Ponappa,
19 - Khushboo - Actor - Tamil, B.V. Karanth,
20 - Akkineni Nageswara Rao - Telugu films top hero - Biography and films, Kannamba, Jahangir (1569), Mahesh Bhatt,
21 - Prof Ram Shankar Katheria,    Kareena Kapoor, Swamy Agnivesh,
22 - P.B. Sreenivas - Telugu Playback Singer, Vijyaya Bapineedu, Ranjeeta Kaur,
23 - Prem Chopra, Kumar Sanu, Anshuman Gaikwad, Ambati Rayudu,
24 - Bhikaji Kama, Mohinder Amarnath, Selja Kumari, Serfoji II (1777)
25 - Deen Dayal Upadhyaya (1916), Satish Dhawan, Feroz Khan (1939), Bishen Singh Bedi (1946), Jagmohan,
26 - Manmohan Singh, Devanand, Sumantra Ghoshal, Ishwhar Chandra Vidya Sagar
27 - Yash Chopra, Mata Amritanandamayi, Nagesh,
28 - Shaheed Bhagat Singh, Bharata Ratna Lata Mangeshkar (1929), Abhinav Bindra - First Olympic Gold Medal for India - Shooting , Saibaba of Shirdi (1838), Ranbir Kapoor,
29 - Mehmood,
30 - Venugopal Dhoot, Hrishikesh Mukherjee,  M.C. Chagla (1900), Nimesh Kampani, Pyarelal Ram Prasad Sharma (1940), Arvind Panagariya,


October


1-  Shivaji Ganeshan, Maj. Gen B.C. Khanduri, Isher Judge Ahluwalia, G.M.C. Balayogi, Allu Ramalingaiah, Jodha Bai (1542), A.K. Gopapalan (1904), Majrooh Sultanpuri,
2 - Mahatma Gandhi (1869), Lal Bahadur Shastri, Asha Parekh (1942)
3 - Gurcharan Das
4 -  Shyamji Krishna Varma (1857),  Kamalakara Kameswara Rao - Telugu Film Director
5 - Cho Ramaswamy - Shankar Jaikishan, Gurudas Kamat,
6 - Vinod Khanna (1946), Meghnad Saha, Lakshmi Panabaka, Bhajan Lal,
7 -  Begum Akhtar (1914),  Zaheer Khan, Yukta Mookhey
8 - Milkha Singh, Raaj Kumar (1926), Lakhsmi Manchu,
9 - Guru Ramadas (1534), Amjad Ali Khan, Anbumani Ramdoss,
10 - R.K. Narayan, Rekha, S.S. Raja Mouli, S.A. Dange,
11 - Jaya Prakash Narayan (1902), Nanaji Deshmukh (1916), Amitabh Bachchan (1942)
12 - Shivraj Patil, Ashok Mankad, Vijay Merchant,
13 - Ashok Kumar (1911), Chitti Babu (Veena)
14 - Lala Hardayal (1884), Dr. Suri Bhagavantam (1909), Gautam Gambhir
15 - Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen, Dr. Kalam (1931), Madan Lal Khurana, Prannoy Roy,
16 - Hema Malini, Naveen Patnaik,
17 - Anil Kumble, Brinda Karat, Smita Patil, T.V Rao, Simi Garewal, Sanjay Kapoor
18 - Om Puri
19 - Sunny Deol, Shaimak Davar,
20 - V.S. Achyutanandan, Navjot Sidhu, Virender Sehwag, Raja Babu,
21 - Shammi Kapoor, Farooq Abdulla, Arun Sarin, Ashwini Nachappa,
22 - Deepak Chopra, Kader Khan,
23 - Bhairon Singh Shekawat, Sunil Bharti Mittal, Prabhas,
24 - R.K. Laxman, Kasturi Rangan,
25 - Umesh Yadav (Cricketer)
26 - Ashwani Kumar, Raveena Tandon, Asin, Bagarappa,
27 - 1907 Bhagat Singh, Anuradha Paudwal, Irfan Pathan, K.R. Narayanan, Dibyendu Barua,
28 - Indra Nooyi, Ashok Chavan, Sister Nivedita,
29 - Vijender Vijinder, Jan Mundhra,
30 - Homi J Bhabha, Pramod Mahajan
31 - Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, C.K. Nayudu (1895), Oommen Chandy, G. Madhavan Nair,


November

  1 - Aishwarya Rai (1973), V.R. Krishna Iyer, Devulapalli Krishna Sastry, A.B.A. Ghanikhan Chowdary, V.V.S. Laxman, Ileana D'Cruz,
  2 - Arun Shourie, Shahrukh Khan, Sohrab Modi, Esha Deol, Anu Malik,
  3 - Amartya Sen (1933) - Nobel Laureate - Bharat Ratna, Prithviraj Kapoor, Lakhmikant,
  4 - Jamnalal Bajaj,  Laxmikant Kudalkar - Music Director (1937) Tabu (1971), Aurangjeb (1618)
  5 - Chittaranhan Das, Virat Kohli, Arjun Singh, Vandana Shiva
  6 - Rajesh Verma - Member Lok Sabha, BSP
  7 - Bharat Ratna Nobel Laureate C.V. Raman (1888),  Kamal Haasan (1954), Bipin Chandra Pal, Anushka Shetty, N.G. Ranga,
  8 - Lal Krishna Advani (1927)
  9 - Garimella Balakrishna Prasad - Court Singer and Musician, Tirumal Tirupati (1978-2006), L.M. singhvi,
10 - Surendranath Banerjee
11 - Maulana Abul Kalam Azad(1888), K.K. Birla, Vinay Katiyar (1954), Russi Modi, Boney Kapoor, Shanti Bhushan, I.G. Patel,
12 - Amjad Khan, Salim Ali
13 - Ambika Soni, P. Susheela, Priya ranjan Dasmunshi,
14 - Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Aditya Vikram Birla, Yandamuri Veerendranath
15 - Sania Mirza - Women Tennis - Grand Slam Event Champion, Gora, Vidya Sinha,
16 - Pullela Gopichand, Ramoji Rao, Kanta Rao, Meenakshi Seshadri,
17 - Gemini Ganeshan, Yusuf Pathan,
18 - Kamal Nath, V.Shantaram
19 - Rani Lakshmibai  (1828) - Fought in the 1857 India Independence War  -  Indira Gandhi (1917) - Prime Minister of India, Sushmita Sen, Zeenat Aman, Keshub Chandra Sen, Eknath Ranade,
20 - Tipu Sultan (1750), Raj Kumar Hirani,
21 - Helen  - Popular Dancer - Hindi Films - Biography and Videos , Prem Nath,
22 - Mulayam Singh Yadav (1939),   Saroj Khan - Choreographer for films - Biography and Videos, L.K. Jha,
23 - Puttaparti Satya Sai Baba (1926), Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Geeta Dutt, Walchand Hirachand, Naga Chaitanya,
24 - Amol Palekar, Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Brijesh Patel, Celina Jaitley
25 - Bappi Lahiri - Hindi films music director, Dilip Tirkey (1977) Rakhi Sawant (1978), Rupa Ganguly (1966)
26 - Dr. Varghese Kurien (1921) - Amul diary, Yash Pal
27 - Harivansh Rai Bachchan (1907) - Hindi Poet - Father of Amitabh Bachchan - Bio, Bappi Lahiri,
28 - K.V.K. Raju
29 - Lalit Modi,
30 - Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858), K.R. Vijaya, Vani Jayaram

December


 1 - Udit Narayan, Medha Patkar,
 2 - K.V. Kamat, Silk Smita (1960), Boman Irani, Manohar Joshi (1937), B. Nagi Reddy (1912)
 3 - Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1884), Nandalal Bose (1822), Mithali Raj (1982)
 4 - R. Venkata Raman (1910), I.K. Gujral (1919), Milind Murli Deora (1976)
 5 - Shikar Dhawan, Sarika, Ardeshir Irani (1886),
 6 - Savitri - very popular Telugu actress - Shekhar Kapoor, Sheikh Abdulla
 7 - Shekhar Suman, Nalin Kumar Kateel (1966)
 8 - Nanasaheb Peshwa (1721) -  Dharmendra    -  Sharmila Tagore (1944) -  Manish Tewari, Prakash Singh Badal,
 9 - Sonia Gandhi (1946), Shatrughan Sinha (1945), Dia Mirza, Farha Naaz,
10 - Rati Agnihotri  - Hindi film actress, C. Rajagopalachari,
11 - Dilip Kumar - Hindi film actor,   Pranab Mukherjee, Rajneesh, Viswanathan Anand, Kimi Katkar, Subrahmanya Bharati (1882), Madhukar Dattatreya Deoras (1915),
12 - Rajnikant - Tamil film actor, Sharad Pawar (1940), Yuvraj Singh, Syed Shanawaj Hussain (1968),
13 - Manohar Parrikar (1955) -  D. Venkatesh (1960) - Telugu film actor
14 - Raj Kapoor (1924) - Hindi film actor, director and producer - Biography, Films Videos - Songs Sanjay Gandhi (1946), Vijay Amritraj, Ghantasala,
15 - T.N. Seshan, Bapu (Telugu filmm director and artist), Sawmi Ranganathananda (1908)
16 - Kundurti Anjaneyulu - Sahitya Academy Award Winner
17 - John Abraham - Hindi film actor,  Ritesh Deshmukh - Hindi film actor, Jaya Sudha (1958)
18 - Vijay Mallya, Barkha Dutt (1971)
19 - Smt. Pratibha Patil, Om Prakash
20 - Yamini Krishnamurty
21 - Govinda - Hindi film actor, Tamanna Bhatia, Y.S. Jaganmohan Reddy (1972), Krishnamachari Srikant, Ameen Sayani (1932)
22 - Guru Govind Singh (1666), Srinivasa Ramanujan, Sarada Devi
23 - Charan Singh, Naresh Goyal,
24 - Anil Kapoor - Hindi film actor, Mohammed Rafi
25 - Bharat Ratna Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861), Bharat Ratna  Atal Behari Vajpayee (1924),  Naushad (1919), Nagma
26 - Baba Amte (1914), Udham Singh,
27 - Salman Khan - Hindi film actor, Mirza Ghalib (1797)
28 - A.K. Antony, Arun Jaitley, Dhirubhai Ambani - Famous business man - Founder, Reliance Industries,  Ratan Tata - Leading business tycoon,Recently retired as Chairman of Tata Group
29 - Rajesh Khanna - One time superstar of Hindi films, Twinkle Khanna - Hindi film actor, Ramanand Sagar, W.C. Bonnerjee (1844), Syed Kirmani (1949)
30 - Ramana Maharshi, K.M. Munshi
31 - Kongara Jaggayya - Telugu film actor and MP also

http://www.bornglorious.com/birthday/?ct=/m/03rk0&pd=12&pg=9

Links to Various Other Lists


Hit and Superhit Hindi Films - Full Movie Videos  on YouTube and Yahoo

Sources:

IAS Officers Birthdays
http://gfilesindia.com/frmOfficersBdayLst.aspx

Lok Sabha Members Birthdays
http://164.100.47.132/LssNew/Members/MembersBirthdaywithoutaddress.aspx

Rajya Sabha Members Birthdays
http://164.100.47.5/newmembers/birthdaylist.aspx

http://www.bornglorious.com/birthday/?ct=/m/03rk0&pd=0817

Updated 28.7.2013
First published on 31.10.2012

INAE award winners list - Top Engineers awards - Include all the winners in the list.
http://www.inae.in/sn_mitra_memorial_award.html


http://www.famous-mathematicians.com/top-10-indian-mathematicians-contributions/

Updated 28 July 2017, 7 May 2017, 21 March 2017, 1 September 2016

Kartika Maasamu - Telugu - కార్తీకమాసం విశేష పూజలు



శివ స్తుతి పాటలు
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Kartika Masumu  - Kaarteeka Maasamu





 సూర్యుడు తులారాశిలోకి రాగానే కార్తీకమాసం ఆరంభమైంది.

పురాణ కాలంనుంచీ ఈ మాసం ఓ ప్రత్యేకతను సంతరించుకుంది. హరిహరాదులకు ప్రీతిపాత్రమైన ఈ మాసంలో భక్తకోటి యావత్తూ కఠిన నిష్ఠతో చేపట్టే నోములకు ఎంతో ప్రాధాన్యం ఉంది.


ఈ మాసంలో పాఢ్యమి, చవితి, పౌర్ణమి, చతుర్దశి, ఏకాదశి, ద్వాదశి తిధుల్లో శివ పార్వతుల అనుగ్రహం కోసం  పూజలు చేస్తుంటారు.  ఈ మాసంలో విశేష పూజలు జరుపుకుంటారు. కార్తీకమాసంలో ఆధ్యాత్మిక సాధనకు అత్యంత ప్రాముఖ్యత ఉంది.

ఈ నెల మొత్తం తెల్లవారుజాముల  స్నానం చేయాలి.
స్నానానంతరం ఓం ప్రభాకరాయనమః, ఓం దివాకరాయమః, ఓం ప్రభాకరాయమః, ఓం అచ్చుతాయమః, ఓం నమో గోవిందాయనమః అనే నామాలను స్తుతిస్తూ సూర్యభగవానునికి ఆత్గ్యం పోయాలి.

ఈ నెల మొత్తం ఇంటి ముందున్న ప్రధాన ద్వారానికి రెండువైపులా దీపాలను వెలిగించాలి.

 కార్తీకశుద్ధ ఏకాదశి

ఈ మాసంలో వచ్చే కార్తీకశుద్ధ ఏకాదశి ఎంతో వైశిష్ట్యం వుంది.ఈ రోజు శ్రీ మహాలక్ష్మికి వివాహం జరిగిన రోజుగా భావిస్తారు.దీన్నే కొన్ని ప్రాంతాల్లో ఉత్థాన ఏకాదశిగా పిలుస్తుంటారు. ఉత్థాన ఏకాదశినాడే దేవదానవులు పాలసముద్రాన్ని చిలికినట్టు పురాణాలు పేర్కొన్నాయి. ఈరోజు ఉపవాసం వుండి మరుసటిరోజు ద్వాదశి పారయణం చేస్తే ఎంతో మంచిది. ఈ కార్తీకమాసంలో ద్వాదశ జ్యోతిర్లింగాలుగా వున్న శివుడు అత్యంత వైబోవోపేతంగా పూజలందుకుంటారు.  ఈ మాసంలో ముక్ష్యంగా సోమవారాల్లో లక్షతులసి దళాలు లేదా బిల్వపత్రాలు, మారేడు దళాలతో గాని శివపూజ చేసిన భక్తులకు మహత్తరశక్తి కలుగుతుందని చెబుతారు.

 కార్తీక దీపాలు


పౌర్ణమిరోజు వేకువజామున గ్రామాల్లో చెరువులు లేదా నదుల్లో మహిళలు అరటిదొప్పలతో దీపాలను పెట్టి నీటిలోకి వదులుతుంటారు. ఈ సమయంలో కోరుకున్న కోర్కెలు నెరవేరతాయనే సంకల్పంతో వివాహం కాని యువతులు భక్తిశ్రద్ధలతో కార్తీకదీపాలను నదుల్లో వదులుతారు.
పూర్వం శౌనకాది మహర్షులతో కలిసి ఆశ్రమం నిర్మించుకుని నైమి శారణ్యంలో నివసిస్తున్న అదిగురువు సూత మహర్షి కార్తీకవ్రత మహత్మ్యం, దానిని ఆచరించే విధానం గురించి ఋషులకు బోధించాడు.

దీని గురించి స్కందపురాణంలో కూడా వివరించడం విశేషం.

పౌర్ణమిరోజు ఆవు నెయ్యితో తడిపిన దారపువత్తుల దీపాలు వెలిగించి తులసికోట చుట్టూ పదకొండు ప్రదక్షిణలు చేసి పరమాన్నం నైవేద్యంగా పెట్టి 365 వత్తులతో హారతి ఇవాలి. నక్షత్రాలు కనుమరుగు కాకముందే ఈ పూజ చేస్తే చాలా మంచిది.

కార్తీక పౌర్ణమి

కార్తీక పౌర్ణమిరోజు రాత్రి 12 గంటలకు పాలలో చంద్రుడిని చూసి ఆ పాలను తాగితే ఎంతో ఆరోగ్యమని పండితులు చెబుతుంటారు. ఈ రోజు బ్రాహ్మీ సమయంలోనే తులసిని పూజిస్తారు.

కార్తీక సోమవారాలు - నదీస్నానాలు

కార్తీకమాసం వచ్చిన వెంటనే నదీస్నానం అత్యంత ప్రధాన మైనదని భక్తులు నమ్ముతుంటారు. లోకరక్షకుడైన సూర్యభగవానుడు కార్తీకమాసంలో వేకువవేళల్లో తులారాశిలో సంచరిస్తున్నప్పుడు నదీ స్నానం చాలా మంచిదని ఋషులు పేర్కొన్నారు. మనఃకారకుడైన చంద్రుని ప్రభావం దేహంపైన, మనస్సుపైనా వుంటుంది. మానసిక దేహారోగ్యానికి కార్తీక మాసంలో కొంత ఇబ్బంది ఏర్పడుతుంది. దీనిని నివారించడానికి ప్రతి సోమవారం లయకారకుడైన శివుడుని ధ్యానించాలనే ఉద్దేశంతో పూర్వం నుంచి ఈ అనవాయితీ కొనసాగుతోంది. ముఖ్యంగా కార్తీకమాసంలో శివభక్తితో శీతల స్నానమాచరించడం ఆరోగ్యనికి మంచిదని చెబుతారు.


 వనభోజనం

కార్తీకమాసం అంటేనే వనబోజనాల మాసం అని చెప్పుకోవచ్చు. ఉసరిచెట్టుక్రింద శ్రీ మహావిష్ణువుని ఫోటో పెట్టి పూజించడంతో పాటు అదే చెట్టుక్రింద సహబంతి భోజనాలు చేయాలి.


ఉసరిచెట్టు  పూజ
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Updated 1 November 2017, 9 October 2013

Tuesday, October 24, 2017

"Paraspara Devo Bhava" - Treat Every Person As God and Serve Him, Worship Him



The Indian ethos, Hindu ethos, Ethos of Bharat Varsh, tells people to treat every person in the world as God and serve him. It says Matru Devo Bhava, Pitru Devo Bhava, Acharya Devo Bhava and also says, "Paraspar Devo Bhava." It also says, Athithi Devo Bhava.

It tells people to do worship of God by offering him 16 services. The same sixteen services are to be offered to every person. The worship of God is Worship of people in the Hindu tradition.




http://www.sreedattavaibhavam.org/paraspara-devo-bhava-1/

Monday, October 23, 2017

About The Idea and Concept of Nation - Books




Democracy and the Nation State

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1351945378
Tomas Hammar - 2017 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Soul of The Nation - Constitution of India:

https://books.google.com/books?id=PmamDAAAQBAJ
P. R. Gupta - 2016 - ‎Preview

These United States: A Nation in the Making: 1890 to the Present

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0393264467
Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, ‎Thomas J. Sugrue - 2015 - ‎Full view - ‎More editions

China from Empire to Nation-State

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0674046951
Wang Hui - 2014 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

"Nation-state" and Minority Rights in India: Comparative ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1317751795
Tanweer Fazal - 2014 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0393350355
Elazar Barkan - 2014 - ‎No preview - ‎More editions



Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0745666809
Montserrat Guibernau - 2013 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Bloody Nations: Moral Dilemmas for Nations, States and International ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1409498824
Dr Cherry Bradshaw - 2013 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions


Modern Education, Textbooks, and the Image of the Nation: Politics ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1136600795
Yoonmi Lee - 2012 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions



The Political Economy of Nation Building: The World's Unfinished ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1412847427

The Law of Nations: Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1108037062


Emmerich de Vattel, ‎Joseph Chitty - 2011 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Destiny of the Nations

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0853304025
Alice Bailey, ‎Djwhal Khul - 2011 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions


Globalization and the Nation State: 2nd Edition

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=023034416X
Robert J. Holton - 2011 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0801897238
Alfred Stepan, ‎Juan J. Linz, ‎Yogendra Yadav - 2011 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

IDEAS OF A NATION: KHAN ABDUL GHAFFAR KHAN

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=818475194X
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan - 2010 - ‎Preview

IDEAS OF A NATION:MAUKANA ABUL KALAM AZAD

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=8184751958
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad - 2010 - ‎Preview

IDEAS OF A NATION: B. R. AMBEDKAR

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=8184751907
Bhim Rao Ambedkar - 2010 - ‎No preview

Nation Building in Comparative Contexts

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1412843707
Karl Wolfgang Deutsch, ‎William J. Foltz - 2010 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

A Cosmopolitanism of Nations: Giuseppe Mazzini's Writings on ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1400831318
Giuseppe Mazzini, ‎Stefano Recchia, ‎Nadia Urbinati - 2009 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Cult of the Nation in France: inventing nationalism, 1680-1800

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0674020723
David Avrom. BELL, ‎David Avrom Bell - 2009 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Nation in the Global Era: Conflict and Transformation

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=900417690X
Jerry Harris - 2009 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Nation-Building, Identity and Citizenship Education: Cross Cultural ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1402093187
Joseph Zajda, ‎Holger Daun, ‎Lawrence J. Saha - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions


The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalis

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0307772993
Robert B. Reich - 2010 - ‎No preview - ‎More editions

Forging a Nation:

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0870819666
Manuel Gamio - 2010 - ‎No preview



Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview [4 volumes]: A ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1851099085
Guntram H. Herb, ‎David H. Kaplan - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions


The Cultural Foundations of Nations: Hierarchy, Covenant, and Republic

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1405182199
Anthony D. Smith - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Nations and Nationalism

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0801475007
Ernest Gellner - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Bloody Nations: Moral Dilemmas for Nations, States and International ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0754671208
Cherry Bradshaw - 2008 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Where Nation-States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0691134677
Philip G. Roeder - 2007 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

What Is a Nation?: Europe 1789-1914 - Page 1

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0191516287
Timothy Baycroft, ‎Mark Hewitson - 2006 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Marxism and National Identity: Socialism, Nationalism, and National ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0791482278
Robert Stuart - 2006 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions



When is the Nation?: Towards an Understanding of Theories of Nationalism

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1134256302
Atsuko Ichijo, ‎Gordana Uzelac - 2005 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Memory, History, Nation: Contested Pasts

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1412804884

Power and the Nation in European History

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1139444727
Len Scales, ‎Oliver Zimmer - 2005 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature Applied to ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1584775017
Emer de Vattel, ‎Joseph Chitty, ‎Edward Duncan Ingraham - 2005 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0198035284
Anthony W. Marx - 2005 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Race and Nation: Ethnic Systems in the Modern World - Page 215

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0415950031
Paul R. Spickard - 2005 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

A Nation-state by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0804750017
Suisheng Zhao - 2004 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

Nation-building: A Reference Handbook - Page 9

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1851095942
Cynthia Ann Watson - 2004 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Shifting Foundations of Modern Nation-states: Realignments of ...

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0802083943
Frank Unger, ‎Sima Godfrey - 2004 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions

The Fate of the Nation-state - Page 51

https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0773526862
Michel Seymour - 2004 - ‎Preview - ‎More editions






Sunday, October 22, 2017

Ernest Renan - 28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892- Scholar - What is a Nation?







Renan, educated by priests, was to accept the scientific ideal with an extraordinary expansion of all his faculties. He became ravished by the splendor of the cosmos.  The certitudes of physical and natural science were revealed to Renan in 1846 by the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, Renan   continued  research in Semitic philology and in 1847, he obtained the Volney prize, one of the principal distinctions awarded by the Academy of Inscriptions, for the manuscript of his "General History of Semitic Languages." In 1847, he took his degree as Agrégé de Philosophie – that is to say, fellow of the university – and was offered a job as master in the lycée Vendôme.

Within his lifetime, Renan was best known as the author of the enormously popular Life of Jesus (Vie de Jésus, 1863). The book was first translated into English in the year of its publication by Charles E. Wilbour and has remained in print for the past 145 years.

Renan claimed Jesus was able to purify himself of Jewish traits and that Jesus became an Aryan, his Life of Jesus promoted racial ideas and infused race into theology and the person of Jesus, he depicted Jesus as a Galilean who was transformed from a Jew into a Christian, and that Christianity emerged purified of any Jewish influences. The book was based largely on the Gospel of John, and was a scholarly work. The book's controversial assertions  that the Bible could and should be subject to the same critical scrutiny as other historical documents caused some controversy and enraged many Christians.



The fifth and sixth volumes of the Origins of Christianity (the Christian Church and Marcus Aurelius) show him reconciled with democracy, confident in the gradual ascent of man, aware that the greatest catastrophes do not really interrupt the sure if imperceptible progress of the world and reconciled, also, if not with the truths, at least with the moral beauties of Catholicism and with the remembrance of his pious youth.

"What is a Nation?"


Renan's definition of a nation has been extremely influential. This was given in his 1882 discourse Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a Nation?"). Whereas German writers like Fichte had defined the nation by objective criteria such as a race or an ethnic group "sharing common characteristics" (language, etc.), Renan defined it by the desire of a people to live together, which he summarized by a famous phrase, "avoir fait de grandes choses ensemble, vouloir en faire encore" (having done great things together and wishing to do more).

Karl Deutsch (in "Nationalism and its alternatives") suggested that a nation is "a group of people united by a mistaken view about the past and a hatred of their neighbors." This phrase is frequently, but mistakenly, attributed to Renan himself. He did indeed write that if "the essential element of a nation is that all its individuals must have many things in common", they "must also have forgotten many things. Renan's work has especially influenced 20th century theorist of nationalism, Benedict Anderson.


He was nearly sixty when, in 1883, he published the autobiographical Souvenirs d'Enfance et de Jeunesse, the work by which he is now best known in France.


Renan was a great worker. At sixty years of age, having finished the Origins of Christianity, he began his History of Israel, based on a lifelong study of the Old Testament and on the Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum, published by the Académie des Inscriptions under Renan's direction from the year 1881 till the end of his life. The first volume of the History of Israel appeared in 1887; the third, in 1891; the last two posthumously.

Renan died after a few days' illness in 1892 in Paris.

Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Renan

Naagula Chavithi Pooja - Telugu నాగుల చవితి పూజ




నాగుల చవితి పూజ 


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KATAKSHA GANAPATI



నాగుల చవితి యొక్క విశేషం ఏమిటి ? AacharaSamhitha by Sri Sivalenka Prakasarao | Gyana Yogi


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http://bhakthikusumam.blogspot.in/2012/11/blog-post.html

Andhra Prabha vyaasamu


http://www.andhrabharati.com/kavitalu/basavarAju/nAgula_chaviti.html




t is also believed that womb of women can be influenced by snakes, and women without children worship the snake god for progeny. In some places people believe that applying the clay collected from snake pits on their forehead, and ears will cure related ailments.

Nagula Chavithi has its significance in Andhra Pradesh, and all the Telugu people regardless of age, caste, gender, creed celebrate this festival.

As said above there are idols of snake in most of the Shiva temples in South India, they are called “Naga Pratima”. These idols are placed under Banyan (Peepal) tree. Devotees go there perform puja



NAGULA CHAVITI MANTRAS


“Om Naga Kulaya Vidmahe Visha Dhantaya Dhimahi Tanno Sarpa Prachodayaat”
“Sarpapasarpa bhadranthe dooram gachcha mahavisha
Janamejaya yaganthe asthika vachanam smara
Ananthaya namasthubhyam sahasra shirasthe namaha
Namosthu padmanabhaya nagaanaam pathaye namaha
Anantho vasukim sheshah takshakah kaliyasthadah”

https://www.astrospeak.com/slides/nagula-chavithi-mantra-and-puja-procedure

నాగుల చవితి కథ 


http://www.eenadu.net/special-pages/aalayaalu/aalayaalu-inner.aspx?featurefullstory=8158

నాగుల చవితి - సినిమా 

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What is a Nation?


WHAT IS A NATION ?

Ernest Renan

About - Ernest Renan

WHAT IS A NATION ?

...A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present- day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. The nation, like the individual, is the culmination of a long past of endeavours, sacrifice, and devotion.

Of all cults, that of the ancestors is the most legitimate, for the ancestors have made us what we are.
A heroic past, great men, and glory constitute  the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past and to have a common will in the present; to have performed great deeds together, to wish to perform still more-these are the essential conditions for being a people.


More valuable  is the fact of sharing, in the past, a glorious heritage and regrets, and of having, in the future, [a shared] programme to put into effect, or the fact of having suffered, enjoyed, and hoped together.  Where national memories are concerned, griefs are of more value than triumphs, for they impose duties, and require a common effort.

A nation is therefore a large-scale solidarity, constituted by the feeling of the sacrifices that one has made in the past and of those that one is prepared to make in the future. It presupposes a past; it is summarized, however, in the present by a tangible fact, namely, consent, the clearly expressed desire to continue a common life. A nation's existence is the result of a daily plebiscite, just as an individual's existence is a perpetual affirmation of life.


The nations are not something eternal. They had their beginnings and they will end. A European confederation will very probably replace them. But such is not the law of the century in which we are living. At the present time, the existence of nations is a good thing, a necessity even. Their existence is the guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.
Nations participate in the common work of civilization; each sounds a note in the great concert of humanity, which, after all, is the highest ideal reality that we are capable of attaining.


A large aggregate of men, healthy in mind and warm of heart, creates the kind of moral conscience which we call a nation. So long as this moral consciousness gives proof of its strength by the sacrifices which demand the abdication of the individual to the advantage of the community, it is legitimate and has the right to exist.

If doubts arise regarding its frontiers, consult the populations in the areas under dispute. They undoubtedly have the right to a say in the matter.

Renan's idea is mentioned in chapter one CBSE Class X book of history.

http://www.nationalismproject.org/what/renan.htm


Deendayal Upadyaya (September 25, 1916 - February 11, 1968)



WHAT IS A NATION ?

WHEN a group of persons lives with a goal, an ideal, a mission, and looks upon a particular piece of land as motherland, it constitutes a nation. If either of the two-and ideal and a motherland-is not there, then there is no nation.

(The source of national feeling is not staying in a particular piece of land, but it is the goal to be achieved by living together).

A nation too has a soul.  There is a technical name for it. In the "Principles and Policies" adopted by Jana Sangh, this name is mentioned. The word is chiti. According to McDougal, it is the innate nature of a group. Similarly every society has an innate nature.


WHAT is A NATION?  - William McDougal

William McDougall (22 June 1871 – 28 November 1938)

For a brief history of the nation-state the reader may be referred to Prof. Ramsay Muir's Nationalism and Internationalism, London, 1917.

In the work mentioned above Prof. Ramsay Muir writes " What do we mean by a Nation?

It may be provisionally defined as a body of people who feel themselves to be naturally linked together by certain affinities which are so strong and real for them that they can live happily together, are dissatisfied when disunited, and cannot tolerate subjection to peoples who do not
share these ties  ." The provisional definition has the merit of recognising that nationhood is essentially a mental condition and must be defined in psychological terms.

The author goes on to inquire "What are the ties of affinity which are necessary to constitute a nation?"
He then considers the following conditions:
(i) "occupation of a defined geographical area,"
(2) "unity of race,"
(3) "unity of language,"
(4) "unity of religion,"
(5) "common subjection, during a long stretch of time, to a firm and systematic government,"
(6) "community of economic interest, with the similarity of occupations and outlook which it brings," (7) " the possession of a common tradition, a memory of sufferings endured and victories
won in common, expressed in song and legend, in the dear names of great personalities that seem to embody in themselves the character and ideals of the nation, in the names also of sacred places
wherein the national memory is enshrined."

Of the last he says
that it is "the most potent of all nation-moulding factors, the one
indispensable factor"; thus showing his sense of the essentially
psychological nature of nationhood. But of all the other six ' factors '
enumerated, he shows that they are unessential. After reaching this
negative conclusion, that nationhood cannot be defined by any one
of these marks or factors, he writes : " Nationality, then, is an elusive
idea, difficult to define. It cannot be tested or analysed by formulae,
such as German professors love. Least of all must it be interpreted
by the brutal and childish doctrine of racialism. Its essence is a
sentiment, and in the last resort we can only say that a nation is
a nation because its members passionately and unanimously believe
it to be so. But they can only believe it to be so if there exist among
them real and strong affinities; if they are not divided by any arti-
ficially maintained separation between the mixed races from which
they are sprung; if they share a common basis of fundamental moral
ideas, such as are most easily implanted by common religious beliefs;
if they can glory in a common inheritance of tradition; and their
nationality will be all the stronger if to these sources of unity they
add a common language and literature and a common body of law.
If these ties, or the majority of them, are lacking, the assertion of
nationality cannot be made good. For, even if it be for the moment
shared by the whole people, as soon as they begin to try to enjoy
the freedom and unity which they claim in the name of nationality,
they will fall asunder, and their freedom will be their ruin.

What, then, is the essential condition for lack of which any such
people would fall short of nationhood ? What is the factor which
has escaped the analysis of Prof. Ramsay Muir? The answer must
be organisation; not material organisation, but such mental organi-
sation as will render the group capable of effective group life, of
collective deliberation and collective volition. The answer to the
riddle of the definition of nationhood is to be found in the conception
of the group mind. A nation, we must say, is a people or popula-
tion enjoying some degree of political independence and possessed
of a national mind and character, and therefore capable of national
deliberation and national volition.


Others maintain that the great men of a nation, who are the
principal agents in moulding its destiny, are in some mystical sense
the products and expressions of the ' unconscious soul* of the people,
that they are the means by which its ideas are realised, through
which they become effective; and they usually make the assertion,
altogether unwarranted by history, that the moment of great need
in the life of a people always produces a great man or hero to lead
the people through the crisis. That is, or may appear to be, true of
those peoples that have survived to pass into history. But what of
those peoples that have gone down, leaving no trace of all their
strivings, beyond some mounds of rubble, some few material monu-
ments, or some strange marks on brick or stone or rock?


It is the weight of the entire history to
which the individual is subjected in his relations with his fellow
citizens. Just, then, as the nation, as a certain social group, has an
existence different from (though not separable from) the existence
of the individuals, so the national character implies that particular
combination of mental forces of which the national life is the external
manifestation 1 / 1 That is a precise and admirable statement of what
we are to understand by national mind and character.

The social environment of any civilised people is, then, very
largely the result of a long continued process of selection, comparable
with the natural selection by which, according to the Darwinian
theory, animal species are evolved; a constant favouring of certain
elements, a constant rejection of others. We may in fact regard
each distinctive type of civilisation as a species, evolved largely by
selection; and the selective agency, which corresponds to and plays
a part analogous to the part of the physical environment of an animal
species, is the innate mental constitution of the people. The sum of
innate qualities is the environment of the culture-species, and it
effects a selection among all culture variations, determining the
survival and further evolution of some, the extermination of others.
And, just as animal species (especially men) modify their physical
environment in course of time, and also devise means of sheltering
themselves from its selective influence, so each national life, each
species of civilisation, modifies very gradually the innate qualities
of the people and builds up institutions which, the more firmly they
are established and the more fully they are elaborated, override and
prevent the more completely the direct influence of innate qualities
on national life.

On the other hand, India is peopled by many different stocks,
and, although these are geographically much mixed, they are but
very little blended, owing to the prevalence from early times
of the caste system. The light coloured intellectual Brahman lives
side by side with small black folk, as different physically and
mentally as the Englishman and the Hottentot; and there are also
large numbers of other widely differing racial stocks, including some
of yellow race. Hence an extreme diversity of social environment,
save in the case of the Moslem converts, who, however, being
scattered among the rest, do but increase the endless variety of
custom, creed, and social environment. Hence the people of India
have never been bound together in the slightest degree, save purely
externally by the power of foreign conquerors, the Moguls and the
British; and hence, even though nations have begun at various
times to take form in various areas, as e.g. the Sikh nation, they
have never achieved any high degree of permanence and stability
and are restricted in area and numbtrs.



The most striking exception is afforded by the people of the
United States of America, or the American nation. There we see
a great area populated by immigrants from every part and race of
Europe in times so recent that, although they are pretty well mixed,
they are but little blended by crossing; a considerable part of the
population still consisting of actual immigrants and their children.
Here, then, there can be no question of any homogeneity as regards
innate mental qualities. Nevertheless, the people is truly a nation
and, perhaps, further advanced in the evolution of national conscious-
ness, thought, and action than many other of the civilised peoples.
This we must attribute to homogeneity of mental qualities which
is in the main not innate but acquired, a uniformity of acquired
qualities, especially of all those that are most important for national
life.

Following Miinsterberg's recent account of The Psychology of
the American People we may recognise as individual character-
istics, almost universally diffused, a spirit of self-direction and self-
confidence, of independence and initiative of a degree unknown
elsewhere, a marvellous optimism or hopefulness both in pnvate
and public affairs, a great seriousness tinged with religion, a
humourousness, an interest in the welfare of society, a high degree
of self-respect, and a pride and confidence in the present and still
more in the future of the nation; an intense activity and a great
desire for self-improvement ; a truly democratic spirit which regards
all men (or rather all white men) as essentially or potentially equal,
and a complete intolerance of caste.

Such high degree of acquired homogeneity of individual qualities
seems to be due in about equal parts to uniformity of social and of
physical environment, both of which make strongly in the same
direction. The physical environment consists in a great and rich
territory, still only partially developed, a fairly uniform climate,
and a uniformity of the physical products of human labour resulting
from the immense development of the means of communication. The
importance of the physical uniformity we may realize on reflecting
that the one great divergence of physical conditions, the sub-tropical
climate of the southern States, gave rise to the one great and
dangerous division of the people which for a time threatened the har-
monious development of the national life; that is to say, the civil war
was due to the divergence of the social system and economic interests
of the southern States resulting from their sub-tropical climate.

FREEDOM OF COMMUNICATION AS A CONDITION OF NATIONAL LIFE

LET us consider now very briefly in relation to the life of a nation
a second essential condition of all collective mental life namely,
that the individuals shall be in free communication with one another.
This is obviously necessary to the formation of national mind and
character. It is only through an immense development of the
means of communication, especially the printing press, the railway
and the telegraph, that the modern Nation-State has become possible,
and has become the dominant type of political organism.

Without this freedom of communication the various parts of the
nation cannot become adequately conscious of one another; and the
idea of the whole must remain very rudimentary in the minds of
individuals; each part of the whole remains ignorant of many
other parts, and there can be no vivid consciousness of a common
welfare and a common purpose. But, more important still, there
can be none of that massive influence of the whole upon each of
the units which is of the essence of collective mental life. Of these
means of reciprocal influence the press is the most important; though,
of course, its great influence is only rendered possible by the railway
and the telegraph.

The same is true in much higher degree of nations. If a people
is to become a nation, it must be capable of producing personalities
of exceptional powers, who. will play the part of leaders; and the
special endowments of the national leader require to be more pro-
nounced and exceptional, of a higher order, than those required
for the exercise of leadership over a fortuitous crowd.

Such personalities, more effectively perhaps than any other factors,
engender national unity and bring it to a high pitch.

These indications are borne out by a review of the history of
any nation that has achieved a considerable development. Every
such people has its national heroes whom it rightly glorifies or
worships; for to them it owes in chief part its existence.

Let us try to imagine the fifty leading minds in each great
department of activity suddenly removed from among us. That will
help us to realise the extent to which the mental life of the'nation
is dependent on them. Clearly, we should be reduced to intellectual,
moral, and aesthetic chaos and nullity in a very short time.

We see in most of the leading European nations the predominance
of certain forms of genius. Modern Italy boasts chiefly men great
in religion and art, perhaps owing to the predominance of Homo
Mediterraneus; Spain in pictorial art and military conquest;
England in poetry and administration and science; Germany in
music and philosophy. Nevertheless, each of these peoples has pro-
duced men of the greatest power in all or several kinds;

THE WILL OF THE NATION 1

ROUSSEAU, in his famous treatise, Le Contrat Social, wrote "There is
often a great difference between the will of all and the general will ;
the latter looks only to the common interest; the former looks to
private interest, and is nothing but a sum of individual wills; but
take away from these same wills the plus and minus that cancel
one another and there remains, as the sum of the differences, the
general will." " Sovereignty is only the exercise of the general will."
That is to say, a certain number of men will the general good, while
most men will only their private good; the latter neutralise one
another, while the former co-operate to form an effective force.


we must maintain that a
population seeking only individual ends cannot form or continue to
be a nation, though all the other conditions we have noticed be
present; that a nation is real and vigorous in proportion as its con-
sciousness of its self is full and clear. In fact national progress and
power and success depend in chief part upon the fulness and the
extension, the depth and width of this self-consciousness the accu-
racy and fulness with which each individual mind reflects the whole;
and upon the strength of the sentiments which are centred upon it
and which lead men to act for the good of the whole, to postpone
private to public ends. And the same holds good of all the many
forms of corporate life within the nation. Each individual's sense of
duty, in so far as it is a true sense of duty, and not a fictitious sense
due merely to superstitious fear or to habit formed by suggestion
and compulsion, is chiefly founded upon the consciousness of
the society of which he forms a part, upon the group spirit that
binds him to his fellows and makes him one with them. And the
nations in which this national self-consciousness is strongest and
most widely diffused will be the successful nations.

Surely, if in any nation the national consciousness could inspire and
maintain all classes of its people in all relations of life to this high
level of strenuous self-sacrifice for the* welfare of the nation, that
nation would soon predominate over all others, and be impregnably
strong, no matter what defects of individual and national character
it might display.



The idea of the nation is, then, a bond between its members
over and above ail those bonds of custom, of habit, of economic
interdependence, of law and of self-interest, of sympathy, of imita-
tion, of collective emotion and thought, which inevitably arise among
a homogeneous people occupying any defined area; and it is the
most powerful and essential of them all. As Fouill6e put it, the
essential characteristic of human society is that "it is an organism
which realises itself in conceiving and in willing its own existence.
Any collection of men becomes a society in the only true sense of
the word, when all the men conceive more or less clearly the type
of organic whole which they can form by uniting themselves and
when they effectively unite themselves under the determining in-
fluence of this conception. Society is then an organism which exists
because it has been thought and willed, it is an organism born of
an idea V In this sense Society has never yet been perfectly realized,
but it is the ideal towards which social evolution tends.

Now material and formal continuity is, as we said, the
essential presupposition of all the other main conditions
of development of the collective mind. On it depends the
Jstrength of custom and tradition and, to a very great
I extent, the strength of national sentiment. It is, therefore,
' a principal condition of national stability; from it arise all
the great conservative tendencies of the nation, all the
forces that resist change; accordingly, the more complete
and long enduring such continuity has been in the past,
the greater is the prospect of its prolongation in the future.
It is owing to the unbroken continuity of the English
nation through so long a period that its organisation is so
stable, its unwritten constitution so effective, at once
stable and plastic, its national sentiment so strong, its
complex uncoded system of judge-made law so nearly in
harmony with popular feeling and therefore so respected.
National organisation resting upon this basis of custom
and traditional sentiment is the only kind that is really
stable, that is not liable to be suddenly overthrown by
internal upheavals or impacts from without. For it alone
is rooted in the minds of all citizens in the forms of habit
and sentiment. All other organisation is imposed by
authority.

National group self-consciousness plays, then, an all-
important part in the life of nations, is in fact the actual,
the most essential constitutive factor of every nation; and
nationhood or the principal of nationality is the dominant
note of world history in the present epoch; that is to say,
the desire and aspiration to achieve nationhood, or to
strengthen and advance the life of the nation, is the most
powerful motive underlying the collective actions of
almost all civilised and even of semi-civilised mankind;

The all-dominant influence of the idea of the nation, I
insist, is not a theory or a speculative suggestion, it is a
literal and obvious fact. Let every other one of the 
favouring conditions of nationality, the geographical,
historical, economic be realised by a population; yet, if
that population has no collective self-consciousness, is not
strongly actuated to collective volition by the group spirit,
it will remain not a nation, but a mere aggregate of in-
dividuals, having more or less organic unity due to the
differentiation and interdependence of its parts, but lack-
ing that higher bond of unity which alone can ensure its
stability and continuity, and which, especially, can alone
enable it to withstand and survive the peaceful pressure
\ or the wariike impact of true nations.





Hence national self-consciousness can never developfcj
except in the form of an idea of strong affective tone, that Ij ^
is to say a sentiment. Hence, whenever we speak of
national self-consciousness or the idea of the nation as a
powerful factor in its life, the sentiment is implied, and I
have implied it when using these expressions hitherto.
This national sentiment, which, if we use the word in its
widest sense, may be called patriotism, is, like all the other
group sentiments, developed by way of extension of the
self-regarding sentiment of the individual to the group,
and may be further complicated and strengthened by the
inclusion of other tendencies. A point of especial impor-
tance is that this great group sentiment can hardly be
developed otherwise than by way of extension of senti-
ments for smaller included groups, the family especially.
For the idea of the nation is too difficult for the grasp of the
child's mind, and cannot, therefore, become the object of
a sentiment until the intellectual powers are considerably
developed. Hence the development of a family sentiment,
or of one for some other small easily conceived group, is
essential for the development in the child of those modes
of mental action which are involved in all group feeling
and action. For this reason the family is the surest,
perhaps essential, foundation of ' national life; and
national self -consciousness is strongest, where family life
is strongest.


"The family is the surest, perhaps essential, foundation of ' national life; and national self -consciousness is strongest, where family life  is strongest."

We have seen that the idea of the nation, present to the
minds of the mass of its members, is an essential condition
of the nation's existence in any true sense of the word na-
tion; that the idea alone as an intellectual apprehension
cannot exert any large influence; that it determines judg-
ment and action only in virtue of the sentiment which
grows up about this object — a sentiment which is trans-
mitted and fostered from generation to generation, just
because it renders the nation an object of value. The
consideration should be obvious enough; but it has com-
monly been ignored by philosophers of the intellectualist
school. They treat the individual mind as a system of
ideas; they ignore the fact that it has a conative side which
has its own organisation, partially distinct from, though
not independent of, the intellectual side; and consequently
they ignore equally the fact that the national mind has its
conative organisation. (Conative organisation is the entity that guides behavior.)                                   

Imagine a people in whom anti-nationalism (in the form
of cosmopolitanism, syndicalism, or philosophic anarchism)
had spread, until this attitude towards the nation-state
as such had become adopted by half its members, while the
other half remained patriotic. Then there would be acute
conflict and discussion, and the idea of the nation would
be vividly present to all minds; but the nature of the
sentiment attached to it would be different and opposite
in the two halves; one of attachment and devotion in the
one half; of dislike, aversion, or at least indifference (i.e.
lack of sentiment) in the other half. And the efforts of
the one half to maintain the nation as a unit^ would be
antagonised and perhaps rendered nugatory by the in-
difference or opposition of the other half, who would
always seek to break down national boundaries and
would refuse co-operation in any national action, and who
would league themselves with bodies of similar inter-
ests and anti-national tendencies in other countries.
Then, even though all might be well-meaning people
desiring the good of mankind, the nation would be very
greatly weakened and probably would soon cease to exist
as such.

And, as the organisation of a nation becomes less de-
pendent upon outer authority and upon mere custom and
the unreasoning acceptance of tradition, and more and
more upon free consent and voluntary contract, the nation
does not cease to be an organism; it retains that formal
and informal organisation which has developed in large
part without the deliberate guidance of the collective will
and which is essential to its collective life; the national
mind, as it grows in force and extension and understanding
of its own organisation, accepts those features which it
finds good, and gradually modifies those which appear less
good in the light of its increasing self-knowledge; and so it
tends more and more to become a contractual organism,
which, as Fouillee has insisted, is the highest type of society.
It should be noticed that this ideal of the contractual
organism synthesises the two great doctrines or theories of
society which have generally been regarded as irreconcil-
able alternatives : the doctrine of society as an organism,
and that of society as founded upon reason and free will.
They have been treated as opposed and irreconcilable
doctrines, because those who regarded society as an organ-
ism, taking the standpoint of natural science, have laid
stress upon its evolution by biological accidents and by
the interaction and conflict of many blind impulses and
purely individual volitions, in which collective volition,
governed by an ideal of the form to be achieved, had no
part. While, on the other hand, the idealist-philosophers,
describing society or the nation as wholly the work of
reason and free will, have been guilty of the intellectualist
fallacy of regarding man as a purely rational being; they
have ignored the fact that all men, even the most intel-
lectual, are largely swayed and moulded by processes of
suggestion, imitation, sympathy, and instinctive impulse,
* in quite non-rational ways; and they have ignored still
more completely the fact that the operation of these non-
rational processes continues to be not only of immense
influence but also inevitable and necessary to the mainte-
nance of that organic unity of society upon which as a basis
the contract-unity is superimposed as a bond of a higher,
more rational, and more spiritual quality.

Only a synthesis of the two in the doctrine of the con-
tractual organism can reconcile them and give us the ideal
of a nation in which the maximum and perfection of or-
ganisation shall be combined with the maximum of liberty,
because in it each individual will be aware of the whole and
his place and functions in it, and will voluntarily accept
that place and perform those functions.

The highest, most perfectly organised and effective na-
tion is, then, not that in which the individuals are disposed
of, their actions completely controlled, and their wills
suppressed by the power of the State. It is, rather, one
in which the self-consciousness and initiative and volition
of individuals, personality in short, is developed to the
highest degree, and in which the minds and wills of the
members work harmoniously together imder the guidance
and pressure of the idea of the nation, rendered in the
highest degree explicit and full and accurate.

Men are not swayed exclusively by considerations of
material self-interest, as the older school of economists
generally assumed; nor even by spiritual self-interest, as
too much of the religious teaching of the past has assumed ;
nor even by consideration of the welfare of the social
groups of which they are members. Many of the great
events of history have been determined by ideas that have
had no relation to individual welfare, but have inspired a
collective enthusiasm for collective action, for national
effort, of a distinterested kind; and the lives of some na-
tions have been dominated by some one or two such ideas.
These ideas are first conceived and taught by some great
man, or by a few men who have acquired prestige and
influence; they then become generally accepted by sugges-
tion and imitation, accepted more or less uncritically and
established beyond the reach of argument and reasoning.

The four ideas, liberty, equality, progress, and human
solidarity or universal responsibility, seem to be the lead-
ing ideas of the present era, the ideas which, in conjunc-
tion with national sentiments, are more than any other,
fashioning the future of the world.

But with those persons in whom great abilities are na-
turally combined with moral disposition the case is very
different. The moral disposition is essentially altruistic;
it is concerned for the welfare of others, of men in general.
Hence such a man deliberately applies his abilities to in-
fluence the minds of others. The exertion of such influ-
ence is for him an end in itself. He seeks and finds his
chief satisfaction in exerting an influence, as wide and
deep as possible, over the minds of men; not merely in
evoking fear or admiration of himself, but in inspiring in
them the same elevated sentiments and sympathies
which he finds within himself.

We have distinguished a formal and an informal organ-
isation of the national deliberative processes, the latter
expressing itself as pubHc opinion. These two organisa-
tions co-exist and are, of course, not altogether indepen-
dent of one another; yet they may be to a considerable
extent independent; though the more intimate the func-
tional relations and the greater the harmony between them
the healthier will be the national life.



Updated 23 October 2017, 21 October 2017